Physical and Psychological Impacts of Menstruation Cycle on girls”



Menstruation is part of the female reproductive cycle that starts when girls become sexually mature. Several studies have revealed a range of physical and psychosocial factor affecting this phenomenon. The aim was to study the physical and psychological impacts of menstruation on girls. It is an exploratory and descriptive research conducted in Kathmandu, Nepal. The study was conducted among girls studying in their Bachelors level of college in Golden Gate International College located in Battisputali, Kathmandu. Data was collected using an online questionnaire and focused group discussion. Data was analyzed using some statistical measures as well as analysis is done in descriptive paragraph form. Majority of girls attained menarche at 12 to 13 years of age. Majority of the girls had knowledge about this cycle before they had it however only one of them was mentally prepared for it to happen. Except for one, every respondent has medical condition during the period and has chronic stomachache and lower pain. Restrictions were imposed on the girls due to customs and traditions, especially related to visiting places of worship during this period. Both the physical and psychological pressure that comes with menstruation cycle every month has resulted in most of the girls experience low self-esteem or low self-confidence, seeing it as a burden rather than a gift which male don’t have to go through. Based on the findings of this study and analysis of the findings, it is realized that this age group of girls, studying in college level still are burdened under the taboos and myths associated with the menstruation cycle.
Keywords: Adolescence, Girls, Menstruation, Physical & Psychological Impacts.


1.1 Introduction to the issue

Biological Explanation of Menstruation:
Shortly after the beginning of puberty in girls, and usually about 2 years after the development of breasts, menstruation starts. While menstruation usually begins between ages 12 and 13, it may happen at a younger or older age.

During a period, there are relatively heavy bleeding of blood and cells from the lining of the uterus usually for 2/3 days followed by another 2-4 days of lighter flow occurring about every 28 days. The fluid during a menstrual period is a mixture of uterine lining tissue and blood. The total monthly menstrual loss varies from about 4 to 12 teaspoons.

The first menstrual period is called “menarche. This onset of menstruation, menarche, signals the body’s coming readiness for childbearing. It continues, unless interrupted by pregnancy until menopause The menstrual cycle is about four weeks long, starting on the first day of bleeding and ending when the next period begins. However, it can vary greatly when a girl first starts her period. It may skip months or come several times per month in the beginning.
In the first phase of each cycle, the lining, or endometrium, of the uterus undergoes rapid proliferation of cells and venous channels in preparation for pregnancy. Midway through the cycle an ovum (egg) is released from an ovary. If, while passing through the fallopian tube the ovum is fertilized by a sperm, implantation in the uterus occurs and the thickened lining helps support the pregnancy. When the ovum is not fertilized, this tissue and blood are shed. The proliferation of the uterine wall then begins once more in expectation of the next release of an ovum, and if conception does not take place, it sloughs off again. The process continues monthly until pregnancy occurs or until ovulation ceases at menopause.
The natural rhythm of the menstrual cycle may be broken or temporarily halted by hormonal imbalance, malnutrition, illness, or emotional disturbance. Menstruation is controlled by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland and hormones, such as estrogen, which prepares the lining of the uterus, and progesterone, which helps maintain a pregnancy.

Social Concept of Menstruation:

Though menstruation is a biological reality, culture-bound values shape its meaning and management. Social and religious traditions regard menstrual fluid as ritually impure and thus menstruating girls/women as untouchables. Menstrual taboos shape many religious and secular practices across the globe. As a result, though there is not a comprehensive cross-cultural comparison of menstruation, anthropologists have reported extensively on various cultural practices surrounding menstruation ranging from severe social restriction to special respect and privilege for menstruating women. Most commonly, menstruating woman is banned from religious rites, sex, and/or food preparation.
Historically, although menstruation cycle is a very natural phenomenon, a bodily process that every average girl goes through every month after entering the puberty age, there are a lot of issues that surrounds it and has become a matter of shame and ridiculing for female in the society. Myth like menstruation is a disease or a curse and it leads up to beliefs like a woman’s body is polluted when she is experiencing periods. Menstruation was a mystery before science could explain it. So, a lot of different ideas and beliefs were created to explain periods in ancient societies and cultures. Many such ideas and beliefs have been proven wrong by science, but they are still followed in current societies. We call these ideas menstrual myths. Different societies have their own different taboos related to the cycle and they drag down the girls from their general growth in their community and also when they go in the outside world.

In the Context of Nepal:
Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in context of society of Nepal. Earlier, most of the rural Nepalese people used to think that, signs of puberty and menstrual cycles signified the girl as being potentially capable of getting married and bear children.
Menstrual taboos with socio cultural aspect among Nepalese society generally create chaos among adolescence girl who has her first experience of menstruation which is called menarche.
Taboos at first menstruation include complete isolation of adolescence girls for about two weeks, without even seeing the sunlight. They are supposed to avoid seeing brothers, fathers and other male members of the society.
As a ritual, menstruating women are forbidden to participate in any religious ceremony and also cannot touch any family members while she is menstruating. During menstruation, they are prohibited from participating normal life activities including cooking and eating together with in a family. Meanwhile, the tradition of seclusion is diverse ranging from eastern part to far western part of Nepal.

Eastern part of Nepal seems to be fragile in continuing this traditional taboo following menstruation cycle by seclusion of woman having periodic cycle for four days and abandon social and house hold activities but the condition seems to be worse in the far western and mid-western part of Nepal. This religious taboo is normally called “Chaupadi pratha” in the mid and far western part of the country and hence not only includes seclusion but totally banished from house and is forced to live in cowshed or similar unsanitary place without proper environment to live such as without light and ventilation and which are very much dangerous to live which has resulted in several problems like rape, snake bites, death due to suffocation as those sheds are not well ventilated.


Nepal is a multi-lingual, multi-religious, multi-ethnic, multi-racial country. People coming from different communities have their own beliefs, values, norms based on their culture. However there is one thing that prevails in most of those cultures and that is stigmatization of menstruation process.

Menstruation cycle is a natural biological process that every girl has to go through every month till they have their menopause. This cycle gives female the power to conceive and bear babies. However, as natural and normal it is, it has always been seen as a stigma, a taboo, that isn’t accepted as something natural, rather it is seen as a matter of disgust, shame and impurity.

Periodic menstrual cycle among females in Nepalese society is considered as “untouchable” since decades and still continued in the present context as well. The term untouchable implies with all the things which are in contact with the specific woman having periodic cycle. A woman having periodic cycle is normally kept under seclusion for four days during her menstrual cycle every month. Seclusion can be isolated in a room for days or in extreme cases having to live in isolation or in cowsheds in rural areas. Seclusion along with disruption and restriction in daily life activities go in parallel. Restriction includes not allowed to visit the place of worship, or entering the kitchen, barred from cooking, touching utensils, flowers and male members.

It has been noticed, witnessed and studied that such taboos and stigmas related to the menstrual cycle are not only deeply rooted in the rural areas where people are not exposed to the knowledge and information but, though not as extreme as in the rural areas, we can also find such taboos prevalent and followed by the people living in urban areas those of whom are well-educated, well-employed and well-informed, who many of whom still struggle and find it difficult to ignore and devalue these taboos as they have been normalized to the point where they have become a part of the culture and religion and their lifestyle and people have adapted with it.

It is in view of the foregoing that the researcher seeks to examine the physical and psychological impacts of menstruation on the girls and examine how they are affected and what they think of it.


During the menstruation cycle, girls not only go through physiological difficulties but are immensely and adversely pressurized psychologically due to several social stigmas and taboos that is associated with the whole process of menstruation. Such beliefs that associates the menstrual cycle as a matter of shame and disgust and impurity cause discrimination against women and at times, can lower your self-esteem and opportunities for growth. This situation is a problem for a society in general because women are the ‘better half’ of every society. In such situation this research aims to find out different difficulties both physical and psychological ones, faced by girls coming from different communities and thus tries to find out and suggest way of tackling it.


Menstruation cycle has been a reason for depriving girls and women of their dignity, worth and freedom. Such violation of female’s rights is employed through associating several taboos with this natural process of menstruation. These taboos even today have its stronghold in both rural and urban societies in Nepal. People still are not comfortable to talk about menstruation openly, to teach about it as a natural process that every single girl has to go through so that one can be prepared for it, menstruation is still a matter of secrecy and shame and impurity that certain practices like not allowing menstruating girls/women to visit place of worship, or enter kitchen, barring from cooking or to extreme cases having to live in isolation or in cowsheds in rural areas.

Menstruation is such a natural process that every girls go experiences after entering their puberty and it is absolutely wrong to encourage and continue different myths associated with the menstrual cycle that undermines a girl’s dignity and freedom in her personal and social life. There is a need to talk about this issue more so that people can do away with the myth by bringing in and learning more rational and logical concepts about the cycle. People are not comfortable talking about it and thus talk about it only in secrecy and this research is significant as it initiates a discussion on a topic that is a taboo in order to normalize it so that there can be more acceptability, flexibility and openness among people to talk about it on a wider range in the
society to tackle the taboos associated with it


1.5.1 General objectives:
The general objectives of this research is to initiate the discussion on the issue as a first step towards dealing with the social stigmas surrounding the issue by normalization and putting forward ways to deal with the problem.
1.5.2 Specific objectives
The research has following specific objectives:

  • To find out the physiological and psychological impacts of menstruation among girls coming from different backgrounds.
  • To learn about different experiences related to menstrual process that the respondents have had or continue to have and also find out what they think and what their conceptions are on the issue and how they see it and feel about it


  • The study has been conducted on girls of only one age-group that is of 19-24 and thus their experiences and perceptions on menstruation cannot be generalized with the girls and women of other age groups. They might or might not be similar.


Menstrual cycle is created by a unique egg and its surrounding cells; these produce hormones under careful feedback control by brain and pituitary hormones. A usual menstrual cycle begins with 2-6 days of vaginal blood loss (called a “period” or “flow”) as the uterine lining is shed. Whole period blood loss averages 8 soaked regular menstrual products (40 ml) (Hallberg, Hogdahl, Nillson, & Rybo, 1966).

Menarche, or first menstruation, is one of the last pubertal changes, occurring after breast bud and pubic hair development. Menarche can occur as early as age 8 and as late as 17 (Hilliard, 2002). The development of full reproductive maturity, however, takes several years. With respect to girls in western culture, early menstruation can be challenging for girls; some experience negative outcomes regarding sexuality and body image (e.g., Mendle, Turkheimer, & Emery, 2007; Posner, 2006). Whether girls are experiencing early puberty related to early menarche is a controversial issue (Dorn & Rotenstein, 2004). Tirls have mixed, but mostly negative feelings about menstruation: they see it as a sign of growing up but are also embarrassed about it (Stubbs, 2008). Preparation leads to more positive attitudes and experiences (e.g., McPherson & Korfine, 2004). For example, supportive, engaged mothers who react in a matter-of-fact way can buffer widespread negative cultural messages about menstruation (Lee, 2008).
Though menstruation is a biological reality, culture-bound values shape its meaning and management. Though there is not a comprehensive cross-cultural comparison of menstruation, anthropologists have reported extensively on various cultural practices surrounding menstruation ranging from severe social restriction to special respect and privilege for menstruating women (Mead, 1949; Shuttle & Redgrove, 2005; Knight, 1991). In most cultures, menarche (the onset of menstruation) is viewed as differentiating males and females.

In contemporary advertising venues, menstruation is most often coupled with dominant and recurring themes of secrecy and concern for restrictions on physical and social activity. In advertisements for drugs marketed for menstrual discomfort, the menstrual cycle is treated as a “hygienic crisis” (Brumberg, 1997), a medical condition, and a “problem” or malady requiring treatment (Tavris, 1992; Angier, 1999; Ussher, 2006; Vostral, 2008). One recent study, however, suggests that teen girls use their menstrual experiences as a “source of power” in their interactions with other girls as well as boys (Fingerson, 2006).

Menstrual taboos shape many religious and secular practices across the globe (Delaney, et al, 1988; Knight, 1991; Laws, 1990; Van de Walle & Renne, 2001). For example, certain religious traditions regard menstrual fluid as ritually impure and thus, the menstruating woman is banned from religious rites, sex, and/or food preparation (Delaney, etal, 1988; Douglas, 1966; Houppert, 1999; Knight, 1991, Mendlinger & Cwikel, 2006; Stein & Kim, 2009). Theorists, including psychoanalysts Freud (1962) and Horney (1967) tried to account for the existence of menstrual taboos; the former claimed that menstrual taboos were an attempt to control women while the latter contended that male fear of menstruation had roots in castration anxiety. Some feminists critique the uses of taboo to disenfranchise women (Bobel, 2010; Delaney, et al, 1988)

Adolescence in girls has been considered as a transition phase from girlhood to womanhood. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in context of society of Nepal. Earlier, most of the rural Nepalese people used to think that, signs of puberty and menstrual cycles signified the girl as being potentially capable of getting married and bear children. (Joshi,2009.)
Isolation in their own home, social and religious restrictions brings feeling of awkwardness among menstruating girls. Taboos at first menstruation include complete isolation of adolescence girls for about two weeks, without even seeing the sunlight. They are supposed to avoid seeing brothers, fathers and other male members of the society. Meanwhile, postponing study creates emotional imbalance making themselves as “untouchable “which is really challenging. It may bring emotional changes among adolescence girls who are not prepared for the periodic cycle of their life in context to scenario of Nepal. (Burbank, 2002)
Adolescence already brings physical and physiological changes within a female body. Menstrual taboos with socio cultural aspect among Nepalese society generally create chaos among adolescence girl who has her first experience of menstruation which is called menarche.
As a ritual, menstruating women are forbidden to participate in any religious ceremony and also cannot touch any family members while she is menstruating. During menstruation, they are prohibited from participating normal life activities including cooking and eating together with in a family. (Adhikari,2007.)


3.1 Research design
This research will be descriptive and exploratory in nature. It will portray and describe the physiological and psychological of the menstruation cycle and also explore different myths and their impacts as the underlying causes of the problem that the girls suffer.
3.2 Sample Design and Size:
The sample size for the study will be 20. The 20 girls belong to the age group of 18-25 and all the samples are Bachelor’s level students.
3.3 Study Area:
A study area is geography for which data is analyzed in a report and/or map. The study was conducted among the girl students of Golden Gate International College located in Battisputali, Kathmandu, Nepal.
3.4 Sampling:
A sample is a subset, or some part, of a larger population. This research has used the convenient sampling method to select the samples as a source of data for the research.
3.5 Data Collection Method:
The two main methods used in this research to collect were:
(A) Survey: A survey is a research technique in which information is gathered from a sample of people using a questionnaire. In this study a questionnaire is used as the primary means to collect the data from the population. The survey was conducted using questionnaires which have open-ended as well as close-ended questions.
(B) Focused Group Discussion: It is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people from similar backgrounds or experiences are gathered together to discuss a specific topic of interest where they are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. The researcher used the Focused Group Discussion method with some of the respondents to get more in-depth information on the thoughts and experiences.
3.6 Data Collection Tools:
For the collection of primary data, the researcher used a mixed questionnaire that was either filled up on printed papers or through email with the use of Google Docs. Along with it, focused group discussion is also used in order to gain first-hand experience and views from the samples where open-ended question were asked.
For the collection of secondary data, the researcher reviewed literature from various online articles, different published researches, different websites and different reports from individual researchers as well as various research groups and organization on the same issue.
3.7 Data Representation and Analysis
Representation is the description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way or as being of a certain nature. For this study, the data will be represented using various graphical tools like pie-chart, tables, bar graphs, etc.
Analysis is the application of reasoning to understand and interpret the data that have been collected. For this study, the data analysis will be done in descriptive paragraph style.

3.8 Ethical Considerations:
During the study, the ethical norms were followed throughout the process:

  • The purpose and objectives of the research was clearly communicated with the concerned person
  • Identity of all the participants are made anonymous
  • All the participants were given their personal space and time to take the questionnaire.
  • All data collected for the study was utilized only for the purpose of research and confidentiality will be highly maintained.


Findings and Data representation:

Key findings:

  • 60% of the respondents had little or more information about menstruation before they first had it. Their source of knowledge was mainly their sisters and friends.
  • Most of the respondents had their first period at the age of 11, 13 & 14.
  • 95% of the respondents have medical conditions during their period. Many had multiple while few had single medical condition.
  • Nearly half the respondents consider themselves impure during their menstrual cycle either physically or spiritually.
  • Practice of isolating girls during their first menstruation is still practiced and almost half the respondents have been through it.
  • Except for 3 respondents, all are bound to follow certain restrictions imposed by their family or society when they are menstruating.
  • 85% of the respondents see menstrual cycle as a burden and more than half them preferred never to have it at all.


All the answers received through the online survey conducted and different data and information collected from other sources are thoroughly studied and based on that, an in depth analysis on this issue is presented under 3 major topics:
(A) Physical Implications:
Menstrual cycle is a biological process every girl/woman go through every month in average. In this process, they bleed blood along with cells and tissues from their genital lines as a result of unfertilized eggs that go wasted. This cycle is a painful endeavor for almost every girl/woman. Medically speaking, prostaglandins are chemicals a woman’s body produces that cause many of the symptoms associated with menstrual discomfort. The tissue that lines the uterus makes these chemicals. Prostaglandins stimulate the uterine muscles to contract. Women who have high levels of prostaglandin may experience more intense contractions of their uterus and more pain. Prostaglandins may also be responsible for vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches that accompany painful periods.
In this research, nearly all women report having experienced stomachache/cramps (85 percent), lower back pain (65 percent), nausea (20 percent), headache(15 percent) and others that include dizziness, fever, weakness, low blood pressure and sleepiness(30%).
During such pain and discomfort, only 2 respondents tend to have painkillers whereas majority of them use household remedies like using hot bag, taking warm drinks, wrapping shawls, taking hot showers or simply taking a nap.

“When I was at school, it was very difficult for me to attend class during my first day of period. Still I remember I used to take 2 tablets almost during my period called meftazol.
But it has been almost 3 to 4 years I have stopped taking pills and tablets.
I have hot water and hot water bag and take rest instead of medicines.”

These physical hazards caused during menstrual cycle disturb their daily personal functioning as well as their academic and professional lives. When asked if they miss their school, college or job during your monthly period, almost half the respondents (40 percent) replied yes.
“I lay in bed whole day as the pain is unbearable and prevents me from my daily functioning.”

(B) Psychological Implications:
It has been proposed and explained well enough through various studies and researches that menstrual cycles have huge psychological impacts along with physical pain and difficulties. For a minor girl to enter her puberty age, going through drastic physical changes among which menstruation being a significant one, it puts them in a psychologically confusing and incomprehensible position where they first have difficulty in understanding it and then the challenge of dealing with it and in adaptation.
When asked about their initial response/reaction when they first had their menstruation, only one respondent said she was prepared while the rest 19 dealt with various emotions and feelings like scared & anxious (90 percent), stressed (50 percent), disgusted (20 percent), and others (25 percent) which includes excited, sad, awkward, neutral and shocked.
Menstruation process last till a woman reaches the state of menopause which usually occurs at around the age of 50. Female have to go through this process for almost throughout their life until their body starts to grow old. In between, they go through several psychological ups and downs. 65% of the respondents replied that they experience mood swings during their period.
Similarly, this cycle along with its physical and psychological implications, it has also been strongly associated with so many taboos in our society that girls tend to lose their self-worth, self-esteem and self-confidence while having periods. They create a barrier not only technically but psychologically as well. When asked whether they experience low self-confidence and self-esteem when you have to start an important work during monthly period, more than half of the respondents i.e. 60% of them said yes while 40% expressed it doesn’t affect their confidence.
“Yes, because sometimes menstruation can ruin our clothes and completely destroy our confidence”
“Yes i do. It makes me conscious of all the hazards that come with my period.”
“no, having periods has nothing to do with low self-esteem, in fact i like it when i get my periods because i feel girly and maybe even feel better about myself.”
Menstruation has been one of the reasons for shaming and ridiculing girls and women from the long past which still exist today. As a result, girls and women are consumed with over self-consciousness out of stress, worry and fear about menstruation and its hazards. There are fears that are so normal that everybody including the women and girls themselves tend to fail in seeing such fear as results of social stigmatization. When asked, during period majority of the respondents say they are fearful of having stains (90%), of others seeing pad (60%) and of wearing light clothes (90%). However, there is a 50-50 reaction on fear of people figuring out that they are menstruating.

(C) Social Implications:
Though menstruation is a biological reality, culture-bound values shape its meaning and management. Social and religious traditions regard menstrual fluid as ritually impure and thus menstruating girls/women as untouchables. Menstrual taboos shape many religious and secular practices across the globe which have for a very long time served as underlying reasons social restriction. Most commonly, menstruating woman is banned from religious rites, sex, and/or food preparation.
For those girls who experience menstruation for the first time, they remain physically unprepared and psychologically confused, shocked, scared. In addition to that, social taboos add the burden of “impure” and “untouchable” tags, isolation and seclusion which furthers the difficult experience for them. Although more than half of the respondents (65 percent) mention experiencing none of the acts of isolation during their first time menstruation, however the rest 35 percent respondents have admitted to some painful experiences during their first time.
“Yes, as according to the Hindu society, there is a culture to stay away from dad and male members of the family, so i was forced to stay at my marital uncle house and stay alone in the floor with mattresses, not to touch and move anywhere except that room and that place and even not to look at the sun until 12th day of the first mensuration time.”
“Yes, I was to stay in same room in 22 days since it was my first one. I wasn’t allowed to enter kitchen and temple as well as touch any guys.”

“Yes I was hidden in a dark room for 4 days. I was prohibited for looking male member of family and even sun.”

The younger generation is slowly discarding the old, social taboos and the situation of girl surrounding the concept of menstrual cycle is getting better. 13 respondents out of 20 responded that they are not considered untouchable or impure when people around them find out that they are menstruating. However, the wrongful concept still prevails as the remaining 7 respondents agree that they are seen as impure and untouchable during their period and thus cannot touch family members especially the male.

“No, I’m never considered ‘impure’ or ‘untouchables’ when people around me know about it.”
“While being around people around may be family or relatives, I am not allowed to touch everywhere and people, kitchens and strictly temples.”
“I am considered as impure and untouchable at my mamaghar, not here at my home”
Social taboos that consider menstruating woman dirty, impure and untouchable, the taboos that associate a natural biological process with shame, impurity and disgust, are underlying cause and reason to ridiculing women and imposing restrictions wide range of restrictions on them. Except for 3 respondents, all the remaining respondents i.e. 85% are bound to follow certain restrictions imposed by their family or society when they are menstruating. Various restrictions as experienced and responded by the respondents were restriction on visiting a place of worship (85 percent), cooking food & touching utensils (15 percent), touching male members of family (10 percent), entering kitchen (10 percent) and others (35%) includes restrictions on touching plants, home-made pickles or no restrictions.
(D) Personal Conceptions and Perspectives:
When it comes to having a perspective on menstruation be it on the part of male or female, it has always been a negative one. When asked to define menstruation cycle and their idea on it, majority of the respondents responded to define menstruation cycle by associating it with words like “impure”, “dirty”, “damaged”, “unwanted”, “waste”, “painful”, “stressful”.
Today, people have started to talk about menstruation and teach their daughters, sisters, girl students about it but not on a scale that is satisfactory and enough. Stigma around this issue is still causing hesitation and embarrassment to even discuss about it. Among the respondents, only 60% had some idea about menstruation before they first experienced it while nearly half i.e. 40% of the respondents didn’t know about it until they actually had it. For those who had some ideas, their source of information was mainly their sisters, friends and for few their mother.
The respondents when asked if they consider impure physically or spiritually when they are menstruating, majority of them (60%) believed they don’t consider themselves impure because it is just a natural biological process and reality for every girl. However, the 35% of the respondents considered themselves impure only physically and only one respondent saw herself spiritually impure.
“I dont think its impure, if it was then goddess could also be considered impure – once a month”
“Not at all. Physically, its just as normal as sweating or urinating. Its just a discharge from our body. And since its a natural process, it makes no sense to me to consider myself spiritually impure.”
“Well, rather than considering physically impure, I feel that I’m more impure spiritually because in my society there’s a saying that girls having their periods are impure so they cannot go inside the room where we worship god. So maybe it is psychological for me to believe in it too.”

When asked the respondents on what they feel about the restrictions imposed on them during their period, all the respondents expressed that it is absolutely unfair and illogical to follow such taboos that consider them impure and untouchable. Few reasoned such restrictions as historically a way of taking care of girls and women by not allowing them to enter kitchen and do household works so that they can take rest. However all of them have showed their dismay and disapproval on such impositions based on impurity and untouchability.

“Absolutely not. It is totally unfair for anybody to shame girls for such a natural thing. We don’t choose it, it is innate. No shame. Logically, if you are imposing the restrictions considering the physical health of a woman during her period, yes it is logical, but if those restrictions are made with a view that girls are impure, that makes no sense to me at all.”
“Originally, these restrictions were applied so women could have some rest, so it is logical. But now they are forcefully made to follow these in an uncomfortable way saying them to be impure, which is unfair.”
“It is unfair but i think it has some logic (although it may not be legitimate) , if a female doesnot focus on personal hygiene during those , she might “contaminate” . but then again this is my logic as to why people make such restrictions , and i dont mean to support this belief.”

It has also been observed that girls have little affection for their period. Only 25 percent say that they enjoy their period in some ways, while strong majorities view it as something they simply have to put up with (75 percent agree). Worse yet, many believe it puts them at a disadvantage in today’s society. A strong majority of women feel that men have a real advantage because they do not have a period (85 percent agree). Women are not ashamed of their period – most of them do not feel any need to hide the fact that they get their period or have to purchase pads and tampons – they just see it as a major inconvenience. However 25 percent of respondents said they preferred not to talk openly about menstruation and 35% of them said they were embarrassed to purchase menstrual products which itself speaks on how girls still feel suppressed about their period.
When asked what their ideal menstrual interval would be, more than half, 55 percent, would prefer never to have it at all, remaining would choose to have a period less frequently than once a month (45 percent).
Menstruation cycle has historically been a very sensitive topic that nobody wants to talk about it, neither men nor women. The stigmatization of this issue has had it stronghold in the societies across the globe that it still prevails on a large scale. And Nepal being an underdeveloped country where majority of the people are uneducated, it doesn’t come as a surprise to witness practices based on the taboos and superstitions surrounding the issue of menstruation.
This research has been able to shed some light on the physical, psychological and social implications of menstruation on girls and women and what they think of various factors surrounding it. Girls have to go through several medical conditions during their period as a result of which, their normal functioning in their personal, academic and professional lives is hampered.
Similarly, most of them remember being scared, anxious, disgusted and stressed out when they first had their period. Most of them have mood swings and fears of staining, wearing lights clothes, others seeing their pad.
As a result of social stigma and social taboos related to menstruation, several restrictions were and are imposed on them like restricting from visiting place of worship, entering kitchen, touching utensils or cooking, touching male members in family, etc. Similarly, while many didn’t, some girls did struggle and experienced days of seclusion during their first period which was a psychological trauma for them as a minor girl.
Girls themselves had a negative perspective on menstruation and had little or no affection for it. They see it as a burden, as a disadvantage that men don’t have, however majority of them are not ashamed of that the fact that they have period, see no need to hide it. And as much as they dislike it, they find it unfair and illogical for anybody shame and ridicule them based on it.
From the data collected and analyzed, it can be concluded that the main objective of this research has been met with finding out and studying various physical and psychological impacts of menstruation on girls along with the social impacts and how they view menstruation cycle as.


Need to reject the taboos:
The best way to get rid of these taboos is to not follow them and ignore. Social taboos are created by human being and thus the power to dismantle those lies too in the hands of humans. Girls and women are the one who are the victims of such taboos and if they want to do away it, they themselves have to rise and have the courage to reject these taboos first and stop self-inflicting and self-devaluating themselves. And it is in the hands of every girl and woman to say no to the restrictions, to the shame-game, to the ridiculing, to the fear and to the embarrassment.

Need to normalize the issue:
Challenging the shame and secrecy surrounding the menstrual cycle, encourages embodied consciousness. There is a need to talk about this issue more so that people can do away with the myth by bringing in and learning more rational and logical concepts about the cycle. People are not comfortable talking about it and thus talk about it only in secrecy. Thus it is extremely important to normalize the issue so that there can be more acceptability, flexibility and openness among people to talk about it on a wider range in the society to tackle the taboos associated with it. For this, there are different roles to be taken:

  • Family, especially mothers and sisters should teach their daughters and sisters about this cycle and give them emotional and psychological support instead of labeling them impure and isolating them for days.
  • Teachers should give enough information to the girl students on menstruation so that when they actually experience it, they would be to some extent mentally and technically prepared on how to handle the situations.
  • Interdisciplinary menstrual cycle research in academic field, especially studies that explore the psychosocial dimensions of menstruation in diverse cultural settings can be of great scope.
  • Government organizations, NGOs and INGOs can strengthen their role in creating awareness on it, by initiating discussions on it where girls and women can speak about their experiences and views.

Einstein’s equation of life and death

Einstein’s equation of life and death


This documentary portrays the 1905 equation of general relativity proposed by one of the greatest scientists of all time, Albert Einstein. It verifies the revolutionary equation as the equation of the life and death, it is not only the equation of destruction but it is equally a justified equation of the creation.
The documentary commences with the Leo Szilard, friend of Albert Einstein, approaching Albert Einstein who was in the vacation in the Long Island in the foreground of 1940s. Leo with the motive to persuade Einstein asks him to write a letter to the then president Franklin Roosevelt for the action against the ill-intentioned Nazi Army of building Atomic Bomb. Leo makes him realize that the German had actually invented a way to make Atomic bomb.
Professor Dr. Brian Cox, the 21st century physicist summarizes the real meaning of the equation E=mc2 in the documentary. He explains that the equation actually is the possibility of extracting tremendous amount of energy from even a bit of a mass of an atom. He describes that by this equation means a glass of water can actually power whole of the London city for years.
It was Einstein who actually pinned down the mysterious light and heat energy that sun has been radiating since million years of its creation. It is because of the nuclear fission reaction that has been occurring in the sun which has been converting it tiny mass to immense energies. If there was no sun, life on earth would not have been possible. Thus this equation has become the equation of life in one sense of perception. This importance was reflected in the seminar held in Pittsburgh in 1935 by Albert Einstein. There he portrayed the confusion that scientists had with the unnatural phenomenon that had been confusing the scientists. Einstein in the same seminar discusses about the possibility of generation of the energy with the use of the formula, but he answers in negation. He opposes the concept of generation of the energy in earthly context. He rather explains this in humorous way saying “the idea is to shoot a bird in dark night sky in a country with few birds.” He meant that to achieve such energy it would require one to spend lot of energies which would be a contextual deficit.
The documentary further pictures the Leo, how he had persuaded Einstein to write the letter to the Roosevelt. In the picture, Leo had heard the news from his friends in Germany that the brilliant scientists in Germany had actually discovered the way to build the Atomic Bomb. Einstein refuses to accept the fact while Leo persuades Einstein to think the alternative possible way of building the bomb. Radioactivity was another invention by Rutherford that was going along the discovery of the equation. Radioactivity actually was the E=mc2 in action. Leo starts realizing this fact and he tries to figure out the alternative way to build the bomb. In 1933, Leo realizes the fact analogous to radioactivity that it is possible to split an atom in radioactivity by hitting the atom with positively charged particle, Alpha particle. This concept was derived for the building of atomic bomb but what Leo had trouble in was the positivity of the alpha particle as it cannot hit the nucleus of the atom which was the heart of the action of E=mc2 . But he quickly realizes that by using neutron which was neutral particle, to hit the nucleus which would actually wobble the nucleus unstable and disintegrate the atom into stable forms releasing the amount of energy that the equation explained.
Dr. Mark Lancaster who is featured in the documentary further explains the method of chain reaction that unstable nucleus would create. He shows the reaction of neutron when it hits the nucleus of Uranium-238, by ejecting three free neutrons which are equally potential for the fresh hit on the other nucleus of the atoms. When there are a lot of atoms, these neutrons attack the atoms and give energy while leaving other free neutrons in hand ready for the new targets. This collection of the energies would be tremendous enough to engulf the whole city.
Further in the documentary, it is shown that Leo finds his collegues, Hann and Strassman who are in Germany had actually discovered and developed the technique to build atomic bomb in Germany. This news makes him realize that if this technique is known to Hitler they would readily pour enough money for the war. Leo expresses his thoughts to Einstein however Einstein refuses to write the president demanding laboratory for making the bomb. He explains that he does not want war in laboratory but Leo warns if Nazi know the technique and build it first, it would be poison for the humanity of the world. Meanwhile Leo and his mate Fermi were experimenting to harness the energy. Einstein finally gets persuaded by Leo and asks Leo what he should ask in the letter.
The picture shows the drama of writing of the letter to Roosevelt stating that it took 8 weeks for the letter to reach the president. The letter infuriates the president and he is shown to take a immediate action by saying “this demands action.” Then president allows them to open a laboratory in New Mexico, Los Alamos with the codename “Manhattan” which was a huge economic project estimated 2.2 billion US $ at that time which would be around 40-50billion US $ at present. This was done for the security of the Allied force during the world war 2. During May 1945 when the war was over in the Europe, Nazis surrendering the Allied Force the meaning of the billion dollar project go in vain. It was because of the rise of Japanese in the war, Americans were evoked for the continuation of the war. In the early morning of the 6 august 1945, .6gms of the Uranium that could produce 12.5kilo tonnes of energy in 6 seconds was dropped in Hiroshima which killed 70000 people and rest sick and dead by fire with almost 90% of buildings collapsed.
The picture then portrays the regrets that Einstein had. He seems to regret saying,” the letter was a mistake.”Einstein then campaigns against the nuclear war.
The documentary clearly explains the destruction that the tremendous amount of energy would make. This equation totally weighs the destruction to the human lives.
The documentary then focus the lens to justify this equation also explains the energy of creation. The bigbang of the singularity in which only energy had been released into the universe converted the amount of energy in to the mass creating heavenly bodies in the universe. Our sun, the earth and ourselves are the product of this release and conversion of the energy. Without this release there would not have been any creation. This creation is explained by the equation E=mc2 .
By explaining the evidences that energy had been the source of creation and the medium of destruction, the equation explained by Albert Einstein E=mc2 signifies the equation of both the life and the death also the equation of the creation and the destruction.




Background of the Study

Nepalese education system has been time and again blamed backwardness of practical knowledge and people often believe that practical knowledge has not been given any importance. Many academic institutions in Nepal provide qualification and a solid grasp of the fundamental in academics but practical business research is a major minus. However, attempts are being made to improve the education system by making students involve in real world where students have to go after acquiring education qualification. And Summer Project is one of those attempts in updating the Nepalese Education System with that of advanced countries. Thus, I am grateful to Pokhara University, which has addressed this opportunity by incorporating summer project even in their bachelor degree programs. The summer project is an opportunity to carry out the practical research on any topic of interest and explore it practically.

Hence, this task has been assigned to me by Mr. Prakash C. Bhattarai, course instructor of our study of an Individual work as a Summer Project for the required fulfillment of our BBA-BI degree. One of the most important and obvious goals of this summer project is the acquisition of practical knowledge and skills necessary to conduct the research activities. Thus, being involved in summer projects is a great way to learn many things and enhance our skills and knowledge by linking the academic environment with workplace and professional realities in terms of opportunities and challenges.

In the present context everything revolves around technology. Technology has grown so vastly that everything is done by technology. Now cyber gaming also requires technology. As I am very much interested in technology and achievements acquired by this field, I got very much excited while choosing this topic. Everybody loves gaming in this era. The 21st century has so much developed that we can see everything digitally. Our world is covered with virtual reality. Everybody loves gaming from, children too youngsters and even the old people who are eager and enthusiastic wants to know what this gaming is all about. This also becomes a habit sometimes. We are so much caught up in the virtual world that we forget about the outdoors. Is this bad or good or bad?


And mostly cyber are vastly increasing in our country. In old times there used to be only few cyber for checking e-mail and surfing net. But now the cyber has taken the next step in the field of virtual reality. Many cyber has now turned into what they call a “game zone”. And this business is now at a peaking level business. Now days everybody goes to cyber for entertainment and to play multiplayer games with their friends. This has now become a tradition for youngsters you may even call a habit. However with this much interest in online gaming among youngsters and children those who are running cyber are making profit day by day.

Statement of the Problem

The cyber gaming has caught so much in this 21st century that everybody gets drag into it. Cyber gaming has caught up worldwide. It has also become a medium of communicating with friends, staying in touch with friends who are far away, releasing their anger, pain and frustration through virtual reality captive in a small computer screens. Especially youngsters and children are caught up in this virtual world. At old times children used to play outside, getting fresh air and playing all kinds of outdoor sports. But now children’s have started to make their own world built up in a small computer screens. Now days mostly LAN games are played in cyber gaming. And the most caught up game of all times till now is DOTA (Defense of the Alliance). Children and youngsters often go to their nearest local cyber game station to gather around with friends and play this game for hours and so. It has become the special way of passing time for young children and teenagers.

So I chose this topic as my summer project research because it intrigued me what is so interesting about this game. However I am also one of the fans of this game and I also play regularly with my friends. It has become a special past time to hang out with my friends and enjoy. But what I would really like to achieve through this topic is that what is there that makes young people like me so attracted towards this game? Is it because of the habit? Is it because to cool down from all the tension and burden from school and colleges? Or is it just for fun past time? These all answers I am looking and hoping to find it through this project and the topic I chose as to do it.


This study explored the relationship between online cyber gaming and age during childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. It also examined whether “role incompatibility,” the theory that normative levels of substance use decrease through young adulthood as newly acquired adult roles create competing demands, generalizes to video gaming. Emerging adult video gamers recruited from video gaming contexts in Kathmandu valley completed a computer-assisted questionnaire for the applicants. All four video gaming indicators—days/week played, school/work day play, nonschool/work day play, and problem play—had significant curvilinear relationships with age. The “shape” of video gaming’s relationship with age is, therefore, similar to that of substance use, but video gaming appears to peak earlier in life than substance use, that is, in late adolescence rather than emerging adulthood. Of the four video gaming indicators, role incompatibility only significantly affected school/work day play, the dimension with the clearest potential to interfere with life obligations.

Objectives of the Study

  • General Objective
    The main objective of this research is to investigate among the customers about their potentiality and benefit of the cyber gaming mainly playing DOTA (Defense of The Ancients).
  • Specific Objective
    Specifically, this study has following objectives:
  • To find out potentiality of customer to play .
  • Benefits of the game
  • To find out what is the suggestion of the people about this game
  • What is the reason behind the youths being attracted to this game?

Importance of study

The main importance of this study is to get the knowledge about the customer attraction towards DOTA in Kathmandu valley. The other importance of this study is to discover the real reason behind playing this game and exploring the virtual world and comparing it to the real one.

 Limitations of Study

  • A little difficult to collect data since all the gamers will be playing the game
  • Load shedding
  • Not many option to explore in this particular field
  • Less parameters

DotA 6.81b AI

                                          LITERATURE REVIEW

An introduction to DOTA

Having touched the hands of more than 10 million people worldwide since its inception nearly 5 years ago, Defense of the Ancients, (DOTA) is arguably one of the most popular game MODS of all time.

DOTA is a game of full name Defense of the Ancients so as to you play as one side of the ultimate struggle between the Sentinel and the Scourge. Each team consists of 1-5 players and their objective is to destroy the opponent’s “ancient” or so the title of the game says while defending your own “ancient”.

Players can pick from a huge range of heroes which up till now totals to be 90 totally different heroes that have different abilities that significantly determine their role in the team. Those with high amounts of health and armor will most probably be the tanks, while those with high physical damage and fast speeds will be the killers and the high damage spell casters will nuke their way into the opponent’s deep flesh.

There are a variety of different buffs and de-buffs that are very unique. This game map is laid out as 3 lanes with towers and buildings protecting the “ancient”. Between these lanes will be the neutral creeps which any team can kill. Also, for the extra thrill, there is a huge creep in the forest waiting for anyone who dare challenge him, ROSHAN. Though he doesn’t reward you much when you defeat him, he grants you an item that when worn, you can revive if you die.

Talking about items, each hero has 6 slots for any item he/she may choose. The wide variety of items makes each and every item special. Different heroes’ suit different items as some of these items increase your stat while some others grant you abilities like the ability to stun your opponent. Items are ranked from 0-4 by their recipe level.

dota-2-beta-screenshot-3Ranked 0 items consists of those items which take affect as long as you hold them and require nothing more than the gold (the currency in game) and the item slot. Ranked 1-4 items mostly require a set of specific items of lower ranks and the recipe for all those items to combine into one deadly item.
The in-game currency is gold which is gained every time the player kills a creep, a hero, or a structure. Gold is also gained over time. 1 gold is automatically given to each player every second. There is another important thing in game other than gold and that is your experience points and your level. As the heroes gain experience from any non allied unit that dies in a radius around them, they level up when that experience point reaches a certain amount. This leveling is crucial for the heroes to gain stats, gain skills and therefore become that much stronger. The process of gaining gold and experience in DOTA-terms is called farming. Heroes who farmed very well and got lots of powerful items and become very strong in game is called fat.

Players have all kind of play styles like 3 heroes from the Sentinel finding a lone hero from the Scourge and start ganging him or the Scourge team sticking together to attack the Sentinel’s base. However, the most important thing in game is pushing. Some people might get tones of kills but if he doesn’t push he’ll never win. Pushing in DOTA-terms means to attack in a lane in attempt to destroy the enemy base. There are certain heroes very well fit for this while others aren’t that good. But generally all 90 heroes are fair and equal as in they all have their pros and cons. There are some heroes that DOTA players call gay. These heroes whom they are talking about in DOTA-term mean a very powerful hero. However, many of these heroes which are very powerful have their requirements before they become powerful. For example, a hero who is very powerful in the late game is only gay when he gets to late game being well fed. Or some heroes are very powerful but require high skills of micro-managing.

This game is also divided into 3 sessions called the early-game, the mid-game and the late-game. The early game is when the players just spawn and start farming and this normally isn’t very long. Normally early game is from levels 1-7. The mid-game starts after the early game. This is the part of DOTA that is VERY crucial to play. Losing this session of the game is a guaranteed loss for your team. It normally ranges from levels 8-15. The late-game comes after mid-game. This point is where some very powerful heroes become VERY deadly while some heroes that were powerful early on start deteriorating. The range is generally levels 16-25.

Defence of the Ancients DOTA) is a multiplayer online battle arena mod for the video game Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos and its expansion Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne, based on the “Aeon of Strife” map for Star Craft. The objective of the scenario is for each team to destroy the opponents’ Ancient, heavily guarded structures at opposing corners of the map. Players use powerful units known as heroes, and are assisted by allied heroes and AI-controlled fighters. As in role-playing games, players level up their heroes and use gold to buy equipment during the mission.

The scenario was developed with the “World Editor” of Reign of Chaos, and was updated upon the release of its expansion, The Frozen Throne. There have been many variations of the original concept; the most popular being DOTA All-stars, which eventually was simplified to DOTA with the release of version 6.68. This specific scenario has been maintained by several authors during development, the latest of whom being the anonymous developer known as “IceFrog” developing the game since 2005.
Since its original release, DOTA has become a feature at several worldwide tournaments, including Blizzard Entertainment’s BlizzCon and the Asian World Cyber Games, as well as the Cyber athlete Amateur and Cyber Evolution leagues; in a 2008 article of video game industry website Gamasutra, the article’s author claimed that “DOTA is likely the most popular and most-discussed free, non-supported game mod in the world”. DOTA is largely attributed to being the most significant inspiration for the multiplayer online battle arena genre. Valve Corporation acquired the intellectual property rights to DOTA to develop and release a stand-alone sequel, Dota 2.

DOTA GAMES have now been with us for over 30 years. The Atari 2600 is nearly 25 years old. Civilization is now nearly 10 years old. Yet, many Americans fail to recognize these complex achievements as more than fads or child’s play. Ask most people what they think about video games, DOTA and many will respond that they’re a waste of time.
Many critics argue that games produce socially isolated people or promote violent behavior. DOTA games are simple, mind numbing entertainment. Playing games is a waste of time. Some of these criticisms may (or may not) be true, but to view all game playing through this lens is to ignore the broader history of games and the diverse range of game playing experiences available.

In fact, the DOTA games sales charts reflect this diversity. The Sims –the “animated dollhouse” game where players create and play out digital fantasy households has dominated the charts for 18 months straight. There are so many computer games which is being addicted by the children or students either in high school and college and even the elementary really like the DOTA games or video games.Today millions of students has been playing DOTA games and become their habits it is so hard for them to avoid playing DOTA games. It is a big Physical and Psychological effects for them mostly to their studies.

Study Area
The main study area chosen to completely focus in this topic is the cyber gaming stations deeply going into the main ethics regarding cyber gaming specially focusing on the game named DOTA (Defense of The ancients). We also survey the customers playing DOTA, investigating cyber game stations and customers about the game.

Hypotheses statements are usually stated to solve a particular problem regarding certain topic. Among different variables in the project we find significant relation between the depending and independent variable. For example in this topic there are some key variables, some of them are dependent and some of them are independent.

Our hypothesis is simply based upon the risk factor affecting in the field of e-banking.
“Does playing cyber game (DOTA) has the potentiality to build a new generation”
There are two variables, they are potentiality and DOTA. In this case potentiality is a independent variable and DOTA is dependent because it depends upon risk that whether risk affects the profitability of bank or not.

Stating the hypothesis after determining the variables:
We basically state the hypothesis in two different ways the one is the Null hypothesis (Ho) which shows that there is no significant relation between DOTA and potentiality. Then we state the alternative hypothesis (H1) which shows that there is a significant relation DOTA and potentiality.

Ho: b=0 (there is no significant relation between the dependent and the independent variables)
H1: b≠0 (there is a significant relation)
 Ethical Consideration
Consideration of the ethics of virtual reality has tended to focus on areas relating to the fragility of information collected and held virtually and transferred via computer-mediated. These include consistency of a player to play the game for hours and hours and potentiality of theirs to pay. These perspectives focus very much on the individual customer or group customer and disregard the significant area of virtual reality. In the Back to Back case ethics regarding this game fickle, many of the parents does not support their affection towards the game. By looking at the cyber ethics it is valid, but coming to the ethics of the society it is not good. According to the parents these types of games will affect their brain and they will not be able to concentrate on their studies probably. But not necessarily it has to be this way. This regards the ethics of the child also. If the passion towards this game is too much then it should not be stopped, it should be let free and help kids enjoy the time with their friends. We identify the moral precepts relevant to the case which may form a basis for further consideration of ethics in this area. These relate to: freedom of choice; transparency. It should be noted however, that this choice of moral issues is inspired by this particular case. There are likely to be other issues which would have risen from different sets of circumstances. Hence, while we think that these issues may have wider reach, we urge continued, systematic consideration of relevant ethical issues in this context.


                         DATA ANALYSIS AND MAJOR FINDINGS

Data presentation and analysis

In my analysis, the total numbers of my respondents were 27 from the customer side and 3 from the owner side. I have divided my questionnaire and my respondents as customers and owners of the cyber. The numbers of respondents are shown in frequency which have also been converted and written in percentage. All the analysis are done in terms of customers and owner basis.

Age FrequencyAge FrequencyPercent
45 and above13.7

The above table represents the data of the respondents collected from the questionnaire for this project. The total respondents collected were 27 from which we can see that the frequency of customer playing DOTA of age group 15-25 is higher (i.e. 17) compared to the frequency of age group 25-35 (i.e. 8)

Below the bar diagram is the pictorial representation of the above table.


The above table represents the data of the respondents collected from the questionnaire for this project. The total respondents were collected from this questionnaire was 27. And among 27 we found out that the population of male is higher (i.e. 23) than the population of female (i.e. 2) playing this game. And there were some missing data also.

Below the pie chart is the pictorial representation of the above table.

Residential areaFrequencyPercent

The above table represents the data of the respondents collected from the questionnaire for this project. The total numbers of respondents were 27. And among these 27 respondents the player of Bhaktapur area is more (i.e. 17) in comparison to Kathmandu (i.e. 9) and Lalitpur (i.e. 1). The research was drawn in kathmandu valley but it seems that the bhaktapur people tend to enjoy most of this game. This may be because of the bhaktapur area is still not ahead at this game.

 Major Findings and Conclusions

Most people of Kathmandu valley have so much interest in DOTA that they spend hours playing it. After the research we found out that it is their passion and addiction towards this game that makes it so popular among the youths. And due to addiction and passion of this game these customers take parts in the tournament with local and with the international and get the benefit of the cash prize also. We also found out that cyber owning this game is in much profit and those who are organizing tournament has even greater profit margin than who does not organize the tournament.
After interviewing the owner of the Durbar square cyber Mr. Sujan Lal Shrestha located in Basantapur in the heart of the Kathmandu city, we found out that the cyber is always pack and has a lot of customers flowing in everyday. He says “it’s too hard to handle with all the customers coming to play DOTA. We have to manage the timing of the each individual who plays hourly. Most of them stay for hours and hours playing DOTA. But we are getting profits from this game only. They play other games also such as counter strike, FIFA, etc. but the most customers we get is when they come to play DOTA. You know it is a team battle so we need 5 player in one team and 5 player on the opposite team, that makes the total of 10 players for 1 game and the game is not finished until the another’s ancient is destroyed. The game is mind numbing I have played it myself and it blew me away with all the cool spells and graphics. So the game of DOTA brings up 10 customers each day and they play for hours.” Regarding the tournament also I asked the question what he said “No, we don’t organize tournament. But the tournament idea is a great one it can attract a lot of customer. I am planning to open one myself but within this month. It’s going to be spectacular.”



DOTA is the game played by the teenagers who are really into the virtual world and computers. The main reason to play this game is because of different reasons it may be addiction, time pass, hanging out with friends, and others. The cyber game catching up vastly in this 21st century is really affecting the youths.

DOTA is a game of full name Defense of the Ancients so as to you play as one side of the ultimate struggle between the Sentinel and the Scourge. Each team consists of 1-5 players and their objective is to destroy the opponent’s “ancient” or so the title of the game says while defending your own “ancient”.

The summary of this project can be derived from the sure facts of the responds of the respondents from the questionnaire. The data collected from the customer can be summarized as the best game of all year since 2009. This game has won the lot of hearts of the youths and children.


With all the research and findings acquired from various customers and owners from the market we can conclude.

Most people regarding research and by the respondent of the questionnaires we found out that every youth is attracted to this game. The ratings of this game are touching the skies. The customer of Bhaktapur comes to Kathmandu to play this game. The customers passion towards this game makes this game a huge success and the cyber owners are also proud to own this game in their cyber. Because it has brought a lot of happy customer and they enjoy a lot while playing this game.

According to the a customer waiting for the turn of their team to play DOTA we found out that the passion towards this game is extreme and youths love to watch also while they wait for their turn he says “this game is such a inspiration to me. This game has given me friends, the confidence to work in a team, leadership skills, etc. it’s the game of the century I’ll say” we can conclude not only this game is good but it also helps to build special skills needed to survival. This game is based on a strategy so we need to build the strategy among our team members in order to defeat the opposing team. So it helps to communicate in a whole new level and it also helps to develop a leadership skill. One must lead the game in order to defeat the enemy. The team coordination build up is the must, so it also teaches how to manage a team.


The finding provide an insight into the characteristics and practices of running a gaming cyber having the game DOTA. It also gives the insight on how it has affected to the lives of the youths.

  • I would clearly like to recommend cyber owners to attract female candidates also in playing this game. There are only handful of female gamers
  • The addiction of game is too intense it could control by maximizing the hourly rate. Playing too much of it also has its bad effects.
  • For this study we took the respondents though questionnaire, however the respondents and most of them were males only few were females so I would like to encourage female generation who love gaming to try this game




Industrial and organizational psychology
Industrial and organizational psychology (I/O) has made a huge impact on the today’s field of industry and commerce. The specialty of industrial-organizational psychology (also called I/O psychology) is characterized by the scientific study of human behavior in organizations and the work place. The specialty focuses on deriving principles of individual, group and organizational behavior and applying this knowledge to the solution of problems at work.

Specialized knowledge and training in the science of behavior in the workplace requires in-depth knowledge of organizational development, attitudes, career development, decision theory, human performance and human factors, consumer behavior, small group theory and process, criterion theory and development, job and task analysis and individual assessment. In addition, the specialty of industrial-organizational psychology requires knowledge of ethical considerations as well as statutory, administrative, and case law and executive orders as related to activities in the workplace.
Problem addressed in I/O:
The specialty of Industrial Organizational Psychology addresses issues of recruitment, selection and placement, training and development, performance measurement, workplace motivation and reward systems, quality of work life, structure of work and human factors, organizational development and consumer behavior.
Skills and procedures utilized:
I/O Psychologists are scientist-practitioners who have expertise in the design, execution and interpretation of research in psychology and who apply their findings to help address human and organizational problems in the context of organized work. I/O psychologists:

  • Identify training and development needs;
  • Design and optimize job and work and quality of work life;
  • Formulate and implement training programs and evaluate their effectiveness;
  • Coach employees;
  • Develop criteria to evaluate performance of individuals and organizations; and
  • Assess consumer preferences, customer satisfaction and market strategie

Six Key Areas of I-O Psychology

According to Muchinsky (2000), most industrial organizational psychologists work in one of six major subject areas:

  • Training and development: Professional in this area often determine what type of skills are necessary to perform specific jobs as well as develop and evaluate employee training programs.
  • Employee Selection: This area involves developing employee selection assessments, such as screening tests to determine if job applicants are qualified for a particular position.
  • Ergonomics: The field of ergonomics involves designing procedures and equipment designed to maximize performance and minimize injury.
  • Performance Management: I-O psychologists who work in this area develop assessments and techniques to determine if employees are doing their jobs well.
  • Work Life: This area focuses on improving employee satisfaction and maximizing the productivity of the workforce. I-O psychologists in this area might work to find ways to make jobs more rewarding or design programs that improve the quality of life in the workplace.
  • Organizational Development: I-O psychologists who work in this area help improve organizations, often through increasing profits, redesigning products, and improving the organizational structure.

Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. The other is understanding how the various parts of a person come together as a whole.

Interest survey/inventory
An interest inventory is a self-assessment tool, used in career planning, that assesses one’s likes and dislikes of a variety of activities, objects, and types of persons; the premise is that people in the same career (and satisfied in that career) have similar interests.
Introduction to the organization:
Merojob is an organization that deals with the online job announcement and job searching sites for the job seekers.
With over five million unique visitors every month from all over Nepal and abroad, has become an inevitable bridge between the hiring employers and the job seekers. It helps companies of all sizes to hire the competent candidates for the given position and offers the best opportunities for job seekers to get hired.
The employers have better chances of getting closer to the candidates that interest them the most with meroJob quick search options and communicating platforms. They can also develop critical insights and better-informed decisions with meroJob’s powerful set of software, service and analytics. They also have a choice among 250,000+ registered job seekers to choose the right candidate they are looking for.
The candidates can enjoy the better exposure to the right people and in right organizations with meroJob’s vast networks, partners and the huge databases of national and multinational organizations. They can look up at meroJob’s 10,500+ partnering organizations for the right place to fit themselves. meroJob also offers different Job Preparation Services that are beneficial to the candidates to expose themselves in a professional manner with right working attitudes.
The intense passionate about delivering the right fit for every hire has made the #1 jobsite of Nepal.
 Background of the study:
In present world of industry and commerce it is really important to be able to understand the employee’s personality and their career interest. For effective functioning of the company and organization and its full upliftment it is very important that the employees be fully interested in what they really do because the right job and right career choice is equally important.
If the person has the correct work choice he can benefit not only himself but all his fellow workers as well as the it is of primary importance to apply psychological knowledge for the workplace and check if the individual fits in for the certain work or not.
For understanding what work suits the best for a certain individual we need to understand his/her personality and how a certain personality types are influenced or motivated towards the certain work. For example:
The person with submissive nature might not fit into the positon that requires leadership as leadership requires strong uphold and influential power to motivate others. so, even in order to choose a leader it’s important to understand a person’s personality and if his quality fits for being an leader.

So, this research is based upon various personality profiles and how it influences interest of the individual and might help the employers to better understand their status of job satisfaction and motivation of current employees as well as provide vision for the employer to conduct similar test regarding future recruitment so that the effectiveness of the job at the workplace could be maintained.
This basic research is intended to study about the organizational process of personnel selection, their performance appraisal, opportunities for training, communication style prevalent and other information regarding the various personality profile and job interest of the employees at the mero job organization.

  •    To check out the system followed by organization for the selection as well as     motivation of the employees and whether psychological approach has been used.
  • To find out the about the various type of personality of the employees and the job interest of those employees and the variation.


  • This study is important or beneficial because: It helps find out about the personality of the employees and how it affects their job interest.
  • To find out about the key features of certain personality type and see it they are fit for the given position or not.
  • To find out about the dominating personality type existing in an organization.
  • To see if employees are working as per their field interest in the company.


  • This research has been conducted among few members of the organization so the finding may not be widely generalizable.
  • Further classification and specialization of the data is required.
  • The sample is very small in number that is only 10 so reliability can be questioned.
  • There might been work pressure in the employees while filling up the sample so the data might not be as accurate.
  • Based on short field visit so further investigation is recommended.


Literature Review

Some Background on the DISC Model of Human Behavior
Twenty-four hundred years ago, scientists and philosophers, most notably Hippocrates, began to recognize and categorize differences in behavior that seemed to follow a pattern.
Since then, many psychologists and scientists have explored behavioral patterns. Dr. William Marston wrote “The Emotions of Normal People” in 1928 after earning his doctorate from Harvard University. Marston theorized that people are motivated by four intrinsic drives that direct behavioral patterns. He used four descriptive characteristics for behavioral tendencies which are represented by four letters of the alphabet: D, I, S and C. Thus the concept of “DISC” was introduced.

Building on a “Wellness” Model
Many behavioral models focus on what is wrong with a person to identify “personality disorders.” The DISC model is based on normal behavior, not abnormal behavior. DISC is a “wellness model” that is objective and descriptive rather than subjective and judgmental.
Therefore, DISC is a practical way to understand yourself and those around in the common settings of everyday life.

The DISC Model of Human Behavior
The DISC Model of Human Behavior is based on 2 foundational observations about how people normally behave:
Observation #1: Some people are more OUTGOING, while others are more RESERVED. 
You can think of this trait as each person’s “internal motor” or “pace.” Some people always seem ready to “go” and “dive in” quickly. They engage their motor quickly. Others tend to engage their motor more slowly or more cautiously.
Observation # 2: Some people are more TASK-ORIENTED, while others are more PEOPLE-ORIENTED. 
You can think of this as each person’s “external focus” or “priority” that guides them. Some people are focused on getting things done (tasks); others are more tuned-in to the people around them and their feelings.
With both observations, we want to emphasize that these behavioral tendencies are neither right or wrong or good or bad. They are just different. We are simply identifying normal behavior styles. People have different styles, and that is okay. We represent these 2 observations in the diagrams below.
Four Major Personality Traits
In review, we have 4 behavioral tendencies to help us characterize people:

  • Outgoing
  • Reserved
  • Task-oriented
  • People-oriented

Everyone has some of all 4 of these tendencies at different times and in different situations. However, most people typically have 1 or 2 of these tendencies that seem to fit them well in their everyday behavior. And, on the other hand, 1 or 2 of these tendencies usually do not fit them well, and these tendencies may even seem “foreign” to their approach to life. The balance of these 4 tendencies shapes the way each person “sees” life and those around them. By combining the 2 previous diagrams, we can show 4 basic quadrants of the circle as shown below:
Four Major Personality Traits / Tendencies

Thus, 4 basic personality traits emerge from our diagram corresponding to the 4 quadrants of the circle (In clockwise order):

  • Outgoing and Task-oriented (upper left quadrant)
  • Outgoing and People-oriented (upper right quadrant)
  • Reserved and People-oriented (lower right quadrant)
  • Reserved and Task-oriented (lower left quadrant)

Next, we will add descriptive terms for each of the four main personality types that emerge in the diagram. The descriptive terms will begin with D, I, S and C.
Describing Each Personality Style  (4 Different Types – 4 Different Priorities)
As mentioned before, we will add the descriptive terms to the diagram. Notice the letters D, I, S and C appear in the 4 quadrants of the circle in the diagram below. You will also notice that descriptive terms have been added in each of the 4 corners of the diagram.
D-I-S-C Descriptive Terms
Now we can further describe each of the four main personality styles:
The Dominant “D” type – An outgoing, task-oriented individual will be focused on getting things done, accomplishing tasks, getting to the bottom line as quickly as possible and MAKING IT HAPPEN! (The key insight in developing a relationship with this type person is RESPECT and RESULTS.)
The Inspiring “I” type – An outgoing, people-oriented individual loves to interact, socialize and have fun. This person is focused on what others may think of him or her. (The key insight in developing a relationship with this type person is ADMIRATION and RECOGNITION.)
The Supportive “S” type – A reserved, people-oriented individual will enjoy relationships, helping or supporting other people and working together as a team. (The key insight in developing a relationship with this person is FRIENDLINESS and SINCERE APPRECIATION.)
The Cautious “C” type – A reserved, task-oriented individual will seek value, consistency and quality information. This person focuses on being correct and accurate. (The key insight in developing a relationship with this individual is TRUST and INTEGRITY.)
Summarizing the DISC Traits
To summarize the DISC Model of Human Behavior (in clockwise order):
D stands for the DOMINANT Type which is OUTGOING and TASK-ORIENTED.
I stands for the INSPIRING Type which is OUTGOING and PEOPLE-ORIENTED.
S stands for the SUPPORTIVE Type which is RESERVED and PEOPLE-ORIENTED.
C stands for the CAUTIOUS Type which is RESERVED and TASK-ORIENTED.


Sample Design and Size:


Distribution of respondent on the basis of departments and level (n=10)
The table shows the distribution of respondent on their departments and level. The sample of study is 10 people working in the organization of Merojob under 7 departments. The sample was based upon the convenience of the H.R. Manager under her guidance.

Study Area:
A study area is geography for which data is analyzed in a report and/or map. The study was conducted among the staffs working in the organization at Merojob which is a job searching institute.

A sample is a subset, or some part, of a larger population. The sampling technique used on this study is non probability random sampling as the sample was chosen as per the convenience of the manager at the company and the convenience sampling method has been used.thus,10 out of 60 staffs at the company conducted the survey for the research.
Data Collection Method:
The two main methods used in this research to collect were:
(A) Interview: An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. The researcher used the interview method to get necessary information from the HR Manager of the organization regarding the organizational management of employees.
(B) Survey: A survey is a research technique in which information is gathered from a sample of people using a questionnaire. In this study 2 questionnaires were used to as the primary means to collect the data from the population. The survey was conducted using questionnaires which have closed ended questions and answers were chosen from the multiple choice given and scale measures has been used.

Data Collection Tools:
The primary data used are collected first through an interview with HR Manager and also through survey by using 2 online psychological tests, one is a south Dakota interest survey adapted from a website and next was disc personality profile survey which was adapted from a website .Both of the survey were conducted on each of the represented samples.Also, various websites has been used as a source of help while analyzing the result of the given data and the help from the lecturer has been taken for data approval.
 Data Representation and Analysis
Representation is the description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way or as being of a certain nature. Analysis is the application of reasoning to understand and interpret the data that have been collected. For this study, the data will be represented using the qualitative method of data collection by interpretation of the quantitative results obtained from the samples.

 Ethical Considerations:
During the study, the ethical norms were followed throughout the process:

  • Approval sheet from the head of department of GGIC was taken.
  • The purpose and objectives of the research was clearly communicated with the concerned person that is H.R. Manager of the
  • Identity of all the participants are made in anonymity to each other.
  • All the participants were given their personal space and time to take the questionnaire.
  • All data collected for the study was utilized only for the purpose of research and confidentiality will be highly maintained.


This whole research constitutes 2 parts using different methods of data collection. The first part is where the researcher interviews the HR Manager of the organization to check whether the organization follows the system of I-O psychology or not.
(I) no of employees and no of departments:
There are total of 60 staffs working for the organization and 7 different departments which is
Finance, Human Resource, Adminal Operations, IT, Marketing, Sales and Top Managements.

(II) Recruitment:
Any activities performed by an organization with a primary purpose of recognizing and attracting potential employees are known as recruitment. This process reflects the first contact between the organization and prospective employees.

(A) Eligibility criteria:
For the process of recruitement special ablity with computer operations and advanced computer skills is under focus.

(B)Vacancy announcement:
The vacancy announcement of the organization is done via advertisement in the website

(C) Interview:
The interview is conducted by the board of members after shortlistment from the given curriculum vitae. The selected candidates then go through the process of interview where they will be asked certain questions related to job experience and job qualification. The selected candidate will be hired as a trainee employee and then will be referred as a
(III) Training opportunities:
Training can be understood as a process of preparing people and making them capable for a particular role, function or profession by orienting, educating providing them required resources in terms of skills, knowledge, information, materials, etc.
Trainings are usually of 2 types: On-the-job and Off-the-job training.
Newly hired employees are engaged in on the job training where they will be trained under the direct supervision of the employees or the manager where they will be coached, mentored and work as a temporary employees which is also considered a probation period. once the probation period is over one is recruited for a long run or simply dismissed based on his/her performance during on the job training.

Off the job training is conducted based on the special requirements of the employees. The selected employees or department are set to such kind of off the job training if necessity is felt. This can involve various training in addition to main job requirement such as team building training, leadership training etc.

(IV) Performance Appraisal:
The organization conducts personal appraisal once a year where employees of all levels are evaluated based on different criteria and parameters. Format for performance appraisal for the top level officers, employees working in head office and in branches are different too. Performance appraisal is based on the level of sales, no of increased customers, marketing strategy and market expansion etc.

(V) Promotion procedure:
There is no fixed scheme for the promotion for the employees. however, the company follows the certain scheme for promoting employees such as years of experience and service at company, performance appraisal, attendance and regularity etc.
(VI) Salary Determination:
The salary structure is determined by making comparisons with other organizations and is also influenced increase in number of customers as well as monthly sales. Salaries understandably depend on the level and position of an individual. Similarly, based on their performance and growth, incentives are added in the long run.
(VII) Communication:
The 2 official communication way of the organization are oral and written. Although both are used, oral communication is more prevalent through meetings, conferences and use of telephone and mobile cell phones. However, documentation of activities, events, policies, plans, procedures are all properly kept in written form. The communication style in the organization is usually very flexible and is not strict or rigid, however sometimes lateral communication takes place depending upon the intensity of the matter to be communicated.
(VIII) Decision making:
At the decision making process, the management communicates with the employees from every level and their feedbacks are taken and considered. However the main decision is taken by top level managers.

(I) Data Representation and Analysis
The following data represented are all based on the outcomes of the questionnaire test conducted on 10 individuals working in the organization.
Data Analysis
From the data in the table, we can find out that out of 10 employees 5 of them have seen to have primary interest in the social interest area,2 of them have been found to have primary interest in the artistic area and 3 of them have been found to have interest in the conventional interest area.

Also we can see that out of 5,3 of the the employees with primary interest area as social interest have seen to have primary personality test as influence and 1 with dominance alone and 1 with both dominance and influence. This has shown that most of the Employees with social interest area have influence traits.

Also, out of 10, 2 of the employees have seen to have primary interest area as artistic interest area and both of them have primary traits as influence and conscientiousness.
The rest of the 3 employees have primary interest in conventional area and have primary traits as dominance.
Overall, most of the employees were found to portray secondary traits as steadiness respectively.


Throughout this study the researcher has analyzed the interest as well as the personality traits of the employees working in an organization at the Merojob.
Though no any correlation has been explained in the data given above, the data clearly shows the influence of person’s personality on their field of interest. This might be useful for employers while hiring employees by sorting out the candidates according to their job interest and seeing if they are fit for certain job or not and if they have the qualities or interest required to benefit the company.

The employees can also see the personality traits of the candidate or employees and change their roles in the organization as fit to their personality. For example:
For a position of a manager, one needs to have good leadership quality as well as have the influence upon the fellow workers and other staffs. For this position person with primary Influence Trait along with dominance can be considered.

This research might be useful for providing insights to the organizations for the useful implication of psychology at the workplace for the betterment at the job or workplace.

Recommendation and suggestion

For the further and effective research I would like to recommend and suggest following key steps:

  • The number of sample should be increased. If the organization wants a in-depth view organization should hire a industrial psychologist and do a research not only on sample population but on the universe itself.
  • The research can be made effective if the sampling method is more specific and purposive and if probability sampling could be followed.
  • I would like to recommend the further investigator to create more flexible time scale for the research for more in-depth findings.

An interest assessment helps identify careers you would enjoy
What activities interest you? Where do your career interests fall? Take the following career interest survey to help you target some general types of careers that interest you from the hundreds of possibilities.
1. Assess how well you’d like to do each work-related activity on pages 2-3 by circling a rating for the activity. Use the rating scale provided on each page.
2. Remove the answer sheet on page 4 to score your assessment. Follow the instructions on the answer sheet.
3. Once you’ve determined your primary, secondary and third highest interest areas using your answer sheet, find the corresponding
interest areas in South Dakota Career InSite ( From the “Who Am I?” option on the right-hand menu, simply choose “Interest Areas.” These are the same six Interest Areas used in the South Dakota Interest Survey. Since people work better in occupations that match their interests and personality, these occupations are grouped to reflect what people with these interest areas like to do.
4. Once you choose an interest area and click on a specific occupation included in that interest area, you will see comprehensive information on that specific occupation. Included under the “Interest Area” information for the occupation will be the three interest areas for that occupation. The first interest area is the most important and tells you the primary interest area related to that occupation. There also is a second and third interest area listed for each occupation. Look through all the career options in your highest area of interest. Pay special attention to those careers in your primary area that include your second highest interest area. To expand your occupation search, you can reverse your primary and secondary interest areas. You may want to look through the careers in your third highest interest group as well, especially if there are a limited number of careers in your first and second highest interest groups.
5. Use Career InSite ( and other resources available from school counselors, teachers, South Dakota Department of Labor and Regulation local offices or public libraries to explore those occupations further.


                          Urbanization And Its impact



Defining urbanization:

Urbanization is the process by which large numbers of people become permanently concentrated in relatively small areas, forming cities. Internal rural to urban migration means that people move from rural areas to urban areas. In this process the number of people living in cities increases compared with the number of people living in rural areas. Natural increase of urbanization can occur if the natural population growth in the cities is higher than in the rural areas. This scenario, however, rarely occurs. A country is considered to urbanize when over 50 per cent of its population live in the urban areas (Long 1998).

An urban area is spatial concentration of people who are working in non-agricultural activities. The essential characteristic here is that urban means non-agricultural. Urban can also be defined as a fairly complex concept. Criteria used to define urban can include population size, space, density, and economic organization. Usually, however, urban is simply defined by some base line size, like 20 000 people. Anyway this definition varies between regions and cities (Long 1998).

Impacts of urbanization

The impact of population growth can be observed on poverty and inequalities. Firstly, extreme poverty, food insecurity, inequality, high death and birth rates are linked in a vicious cycle of poverty. Reducing poverty by investing in poverty reduction intervention can break this cycle. Secondly, youth below the age of 25 make up 60 percent in the least-developed countries. Investing in young people creates a pathway for accelerated development. Likewise, too many women, too often or with too little time between pregnancies give birth, as a result everyday as many as 1,000 women die giving life, one every 90 seconds. This risk is greatest in poor countries and for poor women in all countries. Another paramount challenge is to meet the needs of billions of human beings now – and the billions to come. An increased population will affect us all, so it is everyone’s business to do something about it. In this context, providing economic and social encouragements, investing in ‘gender imbalance’, because when women and men are healthier and participate fully in socio-economic affairs, they trigger progress in their families, communities and nations.


Nepal is one of the world’s poorest countries ranking 138 out of 177 in the human development Index Nepal is a naturally beautiful country of 147,181 sq km in the south Asia region having 885 km in east-west direction and with a mean north-south width of 193 km. Nepal is renowned For socio-cultural diversity having more than 101 ethnic groups, 92 language, ten religions and Three geographical regions with a population of 23.1 million people living 157 persons per sq. km which was just 40 in 19111. The 2001 census showed that 57.5 % of the population belonged to a caste, 2/3 of them living in the hills and 1/3 in the Tarai. Dalits (untouchables) who make up 13.6% of the population are one of the most disadvantaged and backward groups2. It has five Development regions: Eastern, Central, Western, Mid-western and Far-western with 14 zones, 75 districts, 58 municipalities and 3915 village development committees which are further Divided into small political units called wards.

While central and eastern development region are the most developed region Mid -Western and Far- Western development region are the least developed regions of Nepal.
Our research is based on the field of western development region areas that is Devghat, Pokhara and Ghandruk.
Devghat, Pokhara and Ghandruk are 3 different regions located at the western development region of Nepal. While pokhara and ghandruk are famous areas for their incredible natural beauty and scenes full of mountains, lakes and hills, Ghandruk is speically famous as a gateway to mt.everest itself being 25 percent of the Annapurna base camp.

About Devghat, Chitwan
About 6 km to the north of Bharatpur, on the way to the Chitwan National Park, lies a prominent pilgrimage site Devghat, at the confluence of the Trishuli and the Kali Gandaki rivers, which then form the Narayani, a major tributary of the Ganga. Confluences of major rivers such as these are considered very holy. On the day of Makar Sankranti, the first day of the Nepali month of Magh in January, pilgrims converge here to take holy dips.There are a large number of shrines, temples, ashrams and old age homes at Devghat., Balmiki Ashram was a retreat used by the great Hindu sage Balmiki, where Sita came to live with her two sons Lav and Kush after separating from Ram. The ashram is situated in a forest on the bank of the Tribeni River, at the southwestern corner of the national park.
Our visit to devghat was for a very short tenure where we enjoyed our ride to suspension bridge and did a small interaction on the old age home of galeshwor with aim to understand the situation of the residents and about their family situation and so forth.
About Pokhara, Kaski        Khare,_Nepal
Pokhara is a remarkable place of natural beauty. Situated at an altitude of 827m from the sea level and 200km west of Kathmandu valley, the city is known as a center of adventure. This enchanting city has several beautiful lakes and offers stunning panaromic views of Himalayan peaks. The serenity of lakes and the magnificence of the Himalayas rising behind them create an ambience of peace and magic. So today the city has not only become the starting point for most popular trekking and rafting destinations but also a place to relax and enjoy the beauty of nature. 

Pokhara is part of a once vibrant trade route extending between India and Tibet. To this day, mule trains can be seen camped on the outskirts of the town, bringing goods to trade from remote regions of the Himalaya. This is the land of Gurungs and Magars, hardworking farmers and valorous warriors who have earned worldwide fame as Gurkha soldiers. The Thakalis, another important ethnic group here, are known for their entrepreneurship.
Our visit in pokhara was for a real short tenure and was limited to lakeside pokhara where we observed the view of beautiful fewa lake and the reflection of machapuchree mountain and were able to see the beautiful sunrise from the hill of sarangkot(to the north of fewa lake),located at the altitude of 1592 m, where we could view beautiful Dhaulagiri mountain along with other mountain ranges.
The nightlife of pokhara seemed to be very lively along with great lights and music across the streets making it enjoyable even at night.

About Ghandruk
Ghandruk lies to the north of the picturesque city of Pokhara, the district headquarters of Kaski. Ghandruk Village Development Committee (VDC) rises from a height of 1,000 m to 8,091 m above sea level, where Ghandruk village is situated at an altitude of 1,950 m. Endowed as it is with immense natural beauty, this village is well-known both inside and outside the country as a tourist destination. Ghandruk is well known as a model village even in south Asia.
The majority of people residing in the area are Gurungs. Being gateway to the Annapurna Mountain, this village is 25 percent of Annapurna base camp itself.
While our stay at the Ghandruk we were able to observe the scenic beauty of Mt. Annapurna watching the great herds of horse and mules passing across the steeves and rocks. We were also very pleased to present ourselves with the magnificent and traditional Gurung dress available at the local dress hire centers. another major attraction for us while our visit at Ghandruk was the Gurung museum which featured the old weapons and utensils used by the ancestors of Gurung people.


1. To observe the impact of urbanization and tourism on the people of the concerned areas.
2. To give visit to old age home and learn about their lifestyle and situation.
3. To observe the geographical features of the given areas.


Urbanization and Its Historical Stages
By the early 1900s both Great Britain and the United States had become predominantly urbanized nations; since that time, urbanization has been occurring around the globe at a rapid rate.
urbanization trends note three distinct historical stages in the development of cities: preindustrial, industrial, and metropolitan‐megalopolitan stages.

Today, as many as 50 percent of the world’s population lives in urban areas, compared to only a few percent just 200 years ago.
Preindustrial cities
For the vast majority of human history, as far as anyone knows, people roamed about in search of sustenance. While they gathered edible plants, fished, and hunted, our ancestors could never find enough food in one area to sustain themselves for an extended period of time. Consequently, they had to keep moving until they could find another place in which to settle temporarily.
Eventual technological improvements—such as simple tools and information on how to farm and raise animals—allowed people to settle in one place. They built villages, with perhaps only a few hundred people living in each, and, for the following 5,000 years, produced just enough food for themselves—with nothing more in reserve.
About 5,000 years ago, however, humans developed such innovations as irrigation, metallurgy, and animal‐drawn plows. These developments allowed farmers to produce an excess of food beyond their immediate needs. The resulting surplus of food led some people to make their living in other ways: for instance, by making pottery, weaving, and engaging in other nonagricultural activities that they could sell or exchange with others for the surplus food. As a result, people moved off the farms, commerce developed, and cities began to form.

Preindustrial cities—which first arose on fertile lands along rivers in the Middle East, Egypt, and China—were quite small compared to today’s cities. Most preindustrial cities housed fewer than 10,000 inhabitants. Others, like Rome, may have contained as many as several hundred thousand people.
Preindustrial cities differed significantly from today’s cities. The residential and commercial districts were not as sharply separated as they are today. Most traders and artisans worked at home, although people with the same trades tended to live in the same areas of town. People in cities also segregated themselves from one another according to class, ethnicity, and religion—with little or no chance for social mobility or interaction with other groups.
Industrial cities
Between 1700 and 1900, increasing numbers of people moved into cities, resulting in an urban revolution. For example, in 1700 less than 2 percent of British people lived in cities, but by 1900 the majority of them did so. The United States and other European countries soon attained similar levels of urbanization, driven by the Industrial Revolution.
Industrialization produced the mechanization of agriculture, which, in turn, limited the amount of work available on farms. This lack of employment forced farm laborers to move to cities to find work. This migration of workers from rural to urban areas then gave rise to the industrial city.
The industrial city was larger, more densely populated, and more diverse than its preindustrial counterpart. It contained many people of varying backgrounds, interests, and skills who lived and worked together in a defined amount of space. The industrial city also served as a commercial center, supporting many businesses and factories. The latter attracted large numbers of immigrants from other countries hoping to better themselves by securing stable work and finding a “fresh start.”

Metropolis and megalopolis cities
As larger and larger industrial cities spread outward in the early 1900s, they formed metropolises (large cities that include surrounding suburbs, which are lands outside the city limits, usually with separate governance). While some suburbs become distinct cities in and of themselves, they retain strong geographic, economic, and cultural ties to their “parent” city. Many metropolitan areas house a million or more residents.
The upper and middle classes ultimately brought about the so‐called flight to the suburbs. As economic woes increasingly plagued cities in the latter half of the 1900s, many families decided to move out of their inner‐city neighborhoods and into the suburbs. The ability to afford an automobile also influenced this migration. Beginning in the 1970s, most suburbs were largely “bedroom communities,” which means that suburban residents commuted into the city to work and shop, and then returned to the suburb at night. Commuting presented a downside, but most people felt that escaping “urban ghettoization,” or the tendency for the quality of life in inner cities to decline, was well worth any hassles, given the fact that suburbs tended to offer nicer and larger homes, better schools, less crime, and less pollution than cities provided.
Today, suburbs continue to grow and develop. Many have become economic centers in their own right. Offices, hospitals, and factories coexist with shopping malls, sports complexes, and housing subdivisions. In this way, many suburbs have essentially become small (and, in some cases, not so small) cities. Demographically, suburbs tend to attract “whiter” and more affluent residents than do cities. Yet not all suburbs and suburbanites are alike. Even within a suburb, families of varying ethnic and religious backgrounds exist.
Because of all this growth, many suburbs have developed “urban” problems, such as air and water pollution, traffic congestion, and gangs. To escape these problems, some people have chosen to move to rural areas. Others have chosen to return to and revive their cities by renovating and remodeling buildings and neighborhoods. Such an interest in urban renewal (also called gentrification) has turned some slums into decent areas in which to live, work, and raise a family.
The vast urban complex known as a megalopolis was created as suburbs continued to grow and merge with other suburbs and metropolitan areas. That is, some suburbs and cities have grown so large that they end up merging with other suburbs and cities, forming a virtually continuous region. One example of a megalopolis is the hundreds of miles of almost uninterrupted urbanization from Boston to Washington, D.C. The typical megalopolis consists of literally millions of people.
Statement of the Problem:
The statement of the problem is to carefully analyze and examine the various theories used in the development perspectives in social work.
The methodology of this research includes:
a. topic selection : the topic is selected based on the suitability of the field’s and theory that can be applied to it’s study based on the principles of the development and various factors contributing to it such as geographical ,cultural ,social ,economic, religious and so on.
b. Field area of selection: our field area of selection was done as per the convenience of all the students as well as on basis of time efficiency. The field area was maintained within the western development regions of Nepal having infrastructural efficiency and not too far from the Kathmandu valley i.e. the place of our residence.
c. Universe selection: the universe selection for this study lies within western development regions of Nepal which is confined to 3 different areas i.e. Devghat, Pokhara and Ghandruk.
d. Sampling method: Following non-probability sampling methods were followed while conducting the given research:-
i. . Purposive sampling method: purposive sampling method was followed during the field of Devghat where sample were only taken from the residents of old age home.
ii. Quota sampling and convenience sampling: During the Ghandruk visit, quota sampling were used where we had 3 different questionnaire sets targeted for 3 different group that is accommodators, villagers and tourists. This was also a convenience based sampling as the sample could be selected as per our convenience.
e. Tools selection:

Questionnaire method
We were assigned individually by our mentor to conduct the questionnaire survey method for analysis of socio economic impact of tourism in which we were given the three different questionnaires set each targeting different groups i.e.
1. Tourist hotel operator’s households
2. Questionnaires for villagers
3. Questionnaires for tourists

2. Interview method:
We followed the interview method to collect the data from the old age home of Devghat, Galeswer, The pattern of the interview was kept very informal and friendly. The data recording method was through the voice recorder.

3. Observation method
Since many of our research field this year was solely based upon our individual explorations, this method was applicable in all of our fields that we were assigned, especially most of our research is based upon this method where we individually tried to explore various places and understand it’s uniqueness, diversity and importance.

Data presentation and Data analysis

Our first field was based on the old age home of Devghat,,Chitwan.The old age home of Galweswer has been conducted or run by funding collected by various international source as well as N.R.N. (non-residential Nepalese)association. It has been taking care of people of old age by taking very minimum amount from them. The old age home of Galeshwer has about 60 members along with 18 staffs hired to take care of the people of old age home. The monthly amount to be paid to stay in Rs.2300, whereas the yearly pay is Rs.25,500.One can become a permanent member at old age home once they submit the amount of Rs.3,00000.the system of food is all vegetarian and they provide the meal for three times breakfast, lunch and dinner. The ashram conducts the worshipping and prayers of Hindu deity everyday around. The basic yearly health check- up program is also conducted. Only people aged 60 and above are allowed to stay in this old age home. Before admission process, the legal guardian have to show their approval after which their citizenship photocopy is attested and they are admitted. System of

                                             Old Age Home
                         (Managed by Galeshwer Ashram,N.R.N)
                                       Monthly stay charge
                                              Rs. 2,300
                                 Charge for lifetime
                                          Rs.3, 00000
                                  Facilities includes
            Accommodation and Fooding(3 times breakfast, lunch and dinner-fully                                                vegeterian
During our field to Devghat we had involved ourselves in informal interview with the old age resident of old age home. This is the information about the two of the resident of old age home:

NameTitra Kumari Chalise
Original residencePokhara,Srijana chowk
No of child3 daughter ,2 son(dead)
Elderly allowance not yet
Staying since2 years, 4 months

In Ghandruk
Our next field was based on Ghandruk. Ghandruk has become one of the popular tourist destination in present due to its old residential existence, beautiful sceneries along with fascinating view of Mt. Annapurna itself being part of Annapurna base camp and gateway to Mt. Annapurna. Our field in Ghandruk was based on observation and questionnaires while we ourselves were analyzing and examining the socio cultural aspects of Ghandruk, We also conducted a questionnaires based on socio-economic impact of tourism where we were provided with 3 different questionnaires set by our mentors in which one was for operators households, one for villagers and one for tourist.
From the questionnaires it can be seen that female were to have active involvement in field of tourism. The basic cause behind might be the system of home-stay where guests are treated and served like a family member and are shown hospitable behavior by family which is often in our scenario presented by female of family. The main problem faced by tourist hotel operator households is business promotion and household expense management. Usually, such household operators can only take few no of guests at once with minimum of 2 people to maximum of 6 -7 people at once. These homes charge visitors less than 600 per day, compared to the expense in other big lodge or resort. That’s why they seem to be more economical in terms of money. While most of the income is spent on household expenses. Normally, tourist stay in Ghandruk for 1-2 days.
While tourism has directly or indirectly become the main source of income for people in Ghandruk, there are many people who don’t realize that they are part of tourism industry as well.
The main attraction for tourist in Ghandruk involves natural beauty, sunrise and sunset, sightseeing, local Gurung culture and the fascinating scenes of Himalayas. However, the place also has negative sides that is hampering it’s progress. According to the local villager Mrs.Kiran Gurung(age 25),the villagers are involved in quarrels and alcohol consumption which in turn might have created negative impression in visitors. The local people also have tendency to tease any people out of village and poking fun at them which might make tourists or visitors at absurd situation.
However, government now has taken some restriction on alcohol consumption which has decreased the amount of quarrel and created more harmonious situation overside. This restriction includes restriction to alcohol consumption in any other time except for between 6 to 9 pm in the evening. Anyone who sells or consumes alcohol against are charged a fine of Rs.1000.
However, reviewing from the side of tourists they seem to have really liked the place. One of the tourist from china named Wang Wei (female, age 50) who was trekking for first time in Ghandruk after reading a book review really seemed to like the place and was enjoying the facilities provided to her in the place. The only exception that she faced was related with food problem as she found it too spicy and not too suited to her taste.

While our stay at Pokhara valley was very short, our findings were also totally based on self –observation. Pokhara valley seems to be very much modernized valley with influence of lots of foreign tourists paying visit every year. Gifted by its astonishing natural beauty, the lakes, mountains and hills can amaze almost all the people paying visit there. Beautiful Fewa lake, Begnas lake ,Mt.Macchapuchre, David’s Fall, Mahendra Cave, Talbarahi Temple, Bat cave and lot more you will never be enough of visiting amazing places of Pokhara. The night life of Pokhara is quite lively. With lots of discos, pubs and restaurant built in targeting the foreign tourist, you can hear the songs across the streets coming from the restaurants during the night time. The city is full of lights and has enough feel as if you are passing through some urban streets of foreign country.

Urbanization and its impact in Pokhara city
Since 1990s Pokhara has experienced rapid urbanization and as a result service and industries sectors have increasingly contributed to the local economy overtaking the traditional agriculture. The major contributors to the economy of Pokhara are manufacturing and service sector including tourism; agriculture and the foreign and domestic remittances. Tourism, service sector & manufacturing contributes approximately 58% to the economy, remittances about 20% and the agriculture nearly 16%.

The urbanization in Pokhara has contributed to large growth of population in Pokhara. The total population of Pokhara was 3,755 in 19 in 1952/54 which rose 92856 in 1991.rural to urban migration and boundary extension has accelerated the growth rate so as to enable Pokhara to outpace the national percentage of population growth rate.

Most of the forest in Pokhara are undergoing some places, people have undermined the soil and have quarried the stone dangerously which can cause the result of such deforestation can be seen in the west of few lake in form of the sedimentation from which about one third of the lake has already been filled with and turned into the paddy fields.
Due to unplanned and haphazard development of road and settlement the city has been facing difficulties in sanitation and sewerages of the city.
It is already known that Pokhara doesn’t have a source of underground water. The ancient city of Pokhara was built on the bank of Seti River but as the river deepened it’s course and turned to deep George people had to face the problem of drinking water. Currently some neighboring rivers like Boti Khola and Mardi has been used as a source for drinking water but in future there can be huge scarcity of water in Pokhara at the current rate of increase of population.

Urbanization and its impact in Ghandruk
Ghandruk is a small Gurung village lying in Kaski district of Nepal. This village is supposed to be more than 200 years old with typical inhabitants as Gurung people. Though closer to Pokhara city this place doesn’t seem to have gone much of urbanization process due to its difficult geography. However, there has been some positive changes in present due to impact of urbanization in Ghandruk:
1. Expansion of road all the way to Fedi.
2. People can now live their livelihood through tourism apart from traditional job of agriculture, animal husbandry and army service.

Urbanization and its impact on Devghat,Chitwan
Devghat Dham is an important religious pilgrimage site in Nepal. Located almost in the middle of Nepal, this shrine, which is a confluence of Kaligandaki and Trishuli Rivers, is regarded important not only in religious but also in historical, cultural, archaeological and touristic point of view.
As per the process of urbanization, As for road facility, there is four km metalled road to reach Devghat from Diyalo Bungalow junction to the main religious area. There is a suspension bridge to link the Devghat of Chitwan to Devghat of Tanahun over Trishuli River, which has been providing facilities to all the people of Devghat on Tanahun side.
The process of urbanization has been helping tremendously to promote the tourism on the areas of Devghat,Chitwan which in turn is expected to help make the religious sites of this places more popular destination to tourists in upcoming years.

Our 4 nights and 5 days tour was very memorable and a exposure to a new surroundings. I really enjoyed the cooperativeness and helpfulness of my friend without whom the whole tour wouldn’t feel so was mesmerizing to view all the surrounding full of natural and scenic beauty. However, the tenure was little short for us to be able to explore the beauty of Pokhara and observe it carefully. Overall, it was worth the wait. i am looking forward to getting to know some more different places and know the cultures and geography and people of different parts of the country.


Socio-Economic Impact of Tourism in Ghandruk

                         Ghandruk-in-the-snow-early-Feb._940_529_80_s_c1                                               INTRODUCTION

Ghandruk is a small and culturally rich village situated at the northwest of Pokhara city. It is the entry-point to both Annapurna and Machhapuchre mountains. It is a popular tourist destination, stop-over for trekkers and representative of Gurung culture with an old-world charm. The distance covered to reach the Ghandruk village development committee from Pokhara sub-metropolitan city is 53 km north. It is at an altitude of 2050 meters above sea level. Though mainly inhabited by the Gurungs, Ghandruk has a heterogenrous population –Kamis, Magars, Sarkism Damais Brahmins, Chhetris, Newars and Rais. In addition to tourism, other sources of economy are agriculture, hotels and homestay and civil service like police and military. The village has now been declared headquarters of Annapurna Conservation Project as it is situated along the popular Annapurna Santuary Trekking Area. The village offers excellent views of Annapurna South, Machhapuchre and Himalachuli peaks. It is accessible after a five hours trek from Birethanti, which lies along Pokhara-Baglung road.
Geographical features

Ghandruk lies to the north of the popular tourism destination Pokhara in a distance of 53 km. The total area of Ghandruk is 296.50 sq. km. and is fully filled by diversity. 22.50 percent is covered by forest, 18.50 percent is covered by Himalaya, 5.60 percent is covered by rocks, bare land and hills, 0.80 percent is covered by infertile land, 0.50 percent is covered by residential area and rest of the area 52.10 percent is covered by agricultural land (Gurung 2012). Ghandruk is surrounded by hills full of rhododendron flowers on one side and breathtaking scenery of mountains on the other. The rhododendron forest located between Ghandruk and Ghorepani is considered as one of the world‟s largest (Ghandruk 2013).The mountainous region was covered by sub-tropical forest in the past and it is believed that the Gurung people migrated there because they were attracted by the forests.

Economic aspects

The income source of the Ghandruk village people are mainly based on agriculture, animal husbandry, tourism, services in the plice and military, and engaging in their own profession to sustain their lives. Mostly over the total population, each one of the member has joined British army, Nepalese army, Indian army, Nepal police force. And mostly today, many people flew to the Arabian countries for jobs for generating income source to sustain and protect their people lives in village from marginality i.e. poverty. The another source of income comes from the small and cottage industries
Population composition

Mainly inhabited by the Gurungs, Ghandruk has a heterogeneous population –Kamis, Magars, Sarkism Damais Brahmins, Chhetris, Newars and Rais.

Socio-Cultural aspects         Ghandruk-by-Rameshwor-Maharjan.

A good model of community based conservation is practiced in the locality of Ghadruk. Ghandruk has a rich and well known culture and tradition. The deep routed culture of Ghandruk is pure and native. Gurung community being the dominant group in the area, we can clearly see the essence of cultural existence where majority of the people, both male and female wear their cultural dresses. Although they can speak Nepali, they also have been able to preserve their mother tongue. They have their own dialect and tradition which is genuine. It is said that even other Gurung community in other parts of Nepal doesn’t use the dialect like them. Ghandruke(people of Ghandruk)culture has its own value and belief that has given a reflection by the broad variety of songs, dances and festivals celebrated all year round. Their own ritual is performed during birth, marriage ceremony and death. The people of Ghandruk have a smiling face, soft voice, respectful behavior and unique lifestyles.
Religiously people of Ghandruk follow both Hinduism and Buddhism. They worship god and goddesses of both these 2 religions. In the realm of religion, the villagers perfomrm life rituals and practice northern Buddhism. They have institutionalized the post of the Lama (priest), Dhami and Jhankri (shaman and faith healer). Meshram Baraha is the largest Baraha of the Gurung community and Mongolian community.

Tourism aspects

Major attractions of tourists in the village of Ghandruk are considered to be the combination of following reasons:

  • Natural beauties and sceneries
  • Cultural aspect of Gurung tradition
  • Best trekking trail in the world
  • Gateway to Mt. Annapurna and Mt. Machhapuchre
  • Experience of typical Nepali village lifestyle




Tourism has been defined in a number of ways by different people and organization from the beginning of the twentieth century. World Tourism Organization (1991) defined that tourism includes the activities of person travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for less than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Similarly, Mathieson–Wall (1982) defined tourism as the short term movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations and the facilities created to care to their need.
Nepal is one of the most preferred countries in the world for tourism. It is one of the richest countries in terms of bio-diversity including the highest point on earth Mount Everest (8,848 meters) and the lowest point Kechana Kalan (60meters) within a span of 150 kilometers. Nepal, the birthplace of Lord Buddha is the world’s youngest republic. The country is secular and highly diverse culturally and geographically. Along with the population of 26.49 million (Central Bureau of Statistics 2012, 1), Nepal has more than 101 ethnic groups and 92 spoken languages where one can find a rich variety of cultures, different lifestyles, values and traditions. The diversities of nature and culture attract visitors thousands of tourists every year.


Tourism industry is one of the steadily growing industries in the world. And it brings huge impacts in the host country especially in a developing country like ours. The major aspects affected by the tourism industry are social, economic and environmental.

The social and cultural impacts of tourism are contributing to the change in value systems, individual behavior, family relationship, collective life styles, safety and security, moral conduct, traditional ceremonies and community organizations (Mathieson and Wall 1982, 133). According to Godfrey and Clarke (2000 cited in Aref–Redzuan 2010, 88), the socio-cultural impact of tourism is related with the community’s quality of life and sense of place.
The tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits to both host countries and tourists’ home countries. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement.


Endowed as it is with immense natural beauty, Ghandruk is well-known both inside and outside the country as a tourist destination. Ghandruk is well known as a model village even in South Asia. The specific features of the Ghandruk is the Annapurna Circuit Trek which is a classic trek around the world’s tenth highest mountain, cross the classic Throng La Pass from Manang to Muktinath, take in fabulous mountain views from the summit of Poon Hill. This is truly an extraordinary path of Nepal. Along with the natural scenic beauty, this village is inhabitedby the old settlement and the existence of traditional and cultural beauty predominantly of the Gurung community.

With the emergence of number of tourists visiting and staying in Ghandruk especially in their route to Annapurna mountain range, the tourism impact has only grown in every term but most specifically in terms of socio-economic impact. From the economic point of view, the tourism industry generates employment, increases foreign remittances, investments, utilization of resources, increases country’s GDP whereas from the social point of view, it increases living standard of people, the social structures are changed, cultures and values are exchanged, flow of modern information brings change in perception, etc. However everything has its pros and cons and so does tourism industry. It doesn’t only bring positive changes, but also leads to negative impacts in the destination place.

With that thing in mind, this research is to study about the socio-economic impacts of tourism industry in Ghandruk and how the local people view this ever-emerging industry.

GlimpsesfromGhandruk_Banner                      STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Ghandruk is one of the most favored touristic spots in Nepal. And the impacts of tourism industry will definitely be huge. Tourism is one of the major sources of income in the area generating large number of employment opportunities and bringing change in the living standard of the people. Thus, this research intends to study the very impacts of tourism in the area and on the lives of local residents of Ghandruk specifically the social and economic impacts.


  • To study both the positive and negative socio-economic impacts of tourism in Ghandruk
  • To experience a rural life in Ghandruk and especially get an exposure to its socio-cultural life


The Tourism Society of England (1976) defined tourism as a the temporary, short term movement of people to the destination outside the places where they usually live or work and their activities during the stay at each destination (cited in Wind Rose Network 2004–2014). Similarly, Mathieson–Wall (1982) defined tourism as the short term movement of people to destinations outside their normal places of work and residence, the activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations and the facilities created to care to their need (cited in Franklin 2003, 27)

The Himalayan country of Nepal is best known as a natural and cultural destination. The diversities of nature and culture attract visitors. Tourism is the most important sector of the economy in Nepal after agriculture. Tourism touches the life of every Nepalese in some way. It has generated employment opportunities and has helped to promote the arts and cultures of the country. The tourism sector has become a large foreign currency earner with a massive contribution in the economy. The diversity of tourism products in the country has encouraged the first-time visitors to plan their next visit to Nepal. There are more than 20 percent repeating
visitors annually. In 2012, the number of repeating visitors was 170,325 which were 21.20 percent of total visitors (MoCTCA 2013, 47–48)


The tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits to both host countries and tourists’ home countries. Especially in developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic improvement. The tourism sector has broadly contributed to the economy of Nepal where tourism is the main source of foreign exchange. In 2011, Nepal received 736,215 tourists, and the number increased to more than 803,092 in 2012 (MoCTCA 2013, 18).

The socio-cultural impacts of tourism described here are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists, and of interaction with the tourism industry. For a variety of reasons, host communities often are the weaker party in interactions with their guests and service providers, leveraging any influence they might have. These influences are not always apparent, as they are difficult to measure, depend on value judgments and are often indirect or hard to identify. (UNEP)
Sample Design and Size

Hotel OperatorEntrepreneur1
Tourist Businessman1

Table 7.1: Composition of respondents based on their status (n=3)

 Study Area:
A study area is geography for which data is analyzed in a report and/or map. The study was conducted in the village of Ghandruk among 3 people each of the following statuses: hotel operator, villager and tourist.

A sample is a subset, or some part, of a larger population. No particular sampling technique has been used in this study since the population is very small.
7.4 Data Collection Method:
The two main methods used in this research to collect were:
(A) Survey: A survey is a research technique in which information is gathered from a sample of people using a questionnaire. In this study 3 questionnaires were used as the primary means to collect the data from the population. The survey was conducted using questionnaires which have closed-ended questions.
(B) Interview: An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. The researcher used the interview method with the respondents to get additional necessary information which couldn’t be attained from the pre-set questionnaire.

(C) Observation: An observation is an act or instance of viewing or noting a fact or occurrence for some scientific or other special purpose. The researcher used this method especially to observe and study the overall but more specifically the social environment and atmosphere of the study area.

 Data Collection Tools
The primary data used are collected first through interview and also through survey by using 3 different sets of questionnaires for each of the 3 respondents.
Secondary data were entirely extracted using internet from various online articles, published research works and theories. They were utilized to find theoretical information.

Data Representation and Analysis
Representation is the description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way or as being of a certain nature. Analysis is the application of reasoning to understand and interpret the data that have been collected. For this study, the data will be represented in tables and analysis will be done in the detailed paragraph form.

The following data represented are all based on the outcomes of the questionnaire filled up by the 3 respondents in the village of Ghandruk:


Hari GurungMaleHotel OperatorEntrepreneur
5 grade
Sita PunFemaleVillagerShopkeeper
8 grade
JohnMaleTourist Businessman35RussianGraduate

*Name of respondents changed to maintain confidentiality
Information collected from Hari Gurung(The Hotel Entrepreneur)

  • Name of the lodge: Muna Guest House & Restaurant
  • Number of members involved in the tourism industry: 4
  • Type of fuel used in the kitchen: LP gas
  • Number of rooms available: 8
  • Tariff per night: Rs. 400
  • Usual days of stay: 1 day
  • Peak season of tourist arrival: Sept-Oct-Nov
  • Problem in business: Business promotion
  • Satisfied with the number of tourists
  • Annual income over the given years:
YearIncome in Nepalese Rs.

This above data has been represented in the diagram below:
Information collected from Sita Pun (The Villager):

  • Main source of income: Business (Shop)
  • Involved in tourism: No
  • Family members in tourism: No
  • Major personal benefits from tourism: None

Information collected from John (The Tourist):

  • Source of information about Ghandruk: Friends and internet
  • Purpose of visit: Sightseeing
  • First time visit
  • Would like to visit again
  • Main problem: None
  • Fully satisfied

From the information received from the questionnaires and observation, we can somehow analyze impact of tourism on the socio-economic aspects of Ghandruk.


First to talk about the economic impact, the emergence of tourism industry have played a huge role in the upliftment of economy in Ghandruk, generating large number of employment opportunities in hotels, as tourist guides, porters, bringing in foreign remittances, growth in investments in various tourism activities, etc. There has been swift change in the occupation of many people from simply engaging in farming and animal husbandry to running lodge, restaurants, hotels, working as tourist guides, porters, etc.

It has also been observed and analyzed that the most benefitted group of people from the tourism industry is the hotel owners. For this group of hotel entrepreneurs, their whole economy seemed to be dependent on the tourism activities which are usually limited only during the peak season of the year in the months of September, October and November. The seasonal character of the tourism industry creates economic problems for destinations that are heavily dependent on it. Problems that seasonal workers face include job (and therefore income) insecurity, usually with no guarantee of employment from one season to the next, difficulties in getting training, employment-related medical benefits, and recognition of their experience, and unsatisfactory housing and working conditions.

Among the hoteliers group, it is analyzed that they feel there are some gaps to be filled in order to further enhance the tourism business in the area. Earlier there were issues of security due to the absence of any supervising/monitoring local security force. But this problem has been solved with the recent set up of Police office. Another barrier as mentioned by the first respondent, a lodge owner is the lack of proper training for the people engaged in the field of tourism. He said,

“We need to have people who are at least trained in the field of hotel management. People should be given not only with hotel management training but also knowledge on few international languages is very important. When there is skillful manpower in the business, there will definitely be advancement.”
While the hotel owners are the major beneficiaries of the tourism industry, on the other side, the locals have been either completely untouched from the benefits of tourism or insignificantly benefitted. This can be understood from the statement given by the second respondent of this research who is a local resident of Ghandruk.

“I own a shop but no or rarely any tourist come and buy something from here. We are not much directly benefitted from the tourists”

With the hike in price of the daily needs like ration, basic usable commodities, making it almost unaffordable, tourism has not been a boon for everybody in that village, especially for the local residents who are not engaged in any tourism activities. Living has become expensive for them. This has caused economic inequality in the area where rich hoteliers are becoming richer and poor locals poorer. And this inequality and distinction is clearly visible and evidential when one visits the area.

Social aspect is a huge and wide concept which demonstrates the people’s living style influenced by various determinants and the society’s structure. The socio-cultural impacts of tourism described here are the effects on host communities of direct and indirect relations with tourists, and of interaction with the tourism industry. Drastic changes in the socio-cultural aspect of the host community brought by the tourism is inevitable anywhere.

Successful development of tourism industry in the past and its ongoing process is bringing huge change in every small yet significant parts of life in Ghandruk. With the tourism, although not majorly, but people’s occupation has shifted to tourism activities from traditional farming, animal husbandry, poultry farming, etc. The globalization facilitated by tourism has brought in the facilities of Wi-Fi internet although only in the hotels and lodges. There are 5 schools in the area where the children can go and study. As per the second respondent, who is a villager, the exchange of lifestyles with the tourists has brought about hygienic and sanitation improvement among the locals. Many people are now using toilets instead of discharging anywhere they like.

However, the essence of the cultural identity of local people in the area is still very much thriving where people follow their cultural behavior in terms of wearing their cultural dresses, speaking in their native language, following their rituals on different occasions. Similarly, they follow their own social system of fooding and drinking behavior in their locality. Besides as a way of promoting tourism, there are museums for tourists where the local people have been able to preserve their traditional dresses, ornaments, household items and pictures of their ancestors. Also as a means of cultural exchange, there is a traditional costumes and jewelry center where visitors can dress up in a traditional Gurung style and take photographs with a hiring cost.

However, other than most of positive impacts, there are some negative impacts too. Due to economic disparity among the rich and poor in the area caused significantly due to tourism, it has as a direct result, caused social partition between these two groups too. Although still unaltered, there is a threat on local culture with the flow of tourists from all over the world, bringing their own culture and life style into the area.


Ghandruk is a beautiful place with magnificent natural scenic beauty and a distinctive Gurung culture that thrives in this small village still in its typical unaltered form. It is considered among one of the most preferred touristic areas in Nepal. This beautiful small village lies on the Annapurna Circuit Trek which is one of the main reasons why and how people started flowing into this area. Several attractions in this village have been successful over the years to bring in thousands of tourists every year.

With such influx of tourists every year, there is bound to have some significant impacts on various aspects of the area. And the impacts of tourism on socio-economic aspects of the Ghandruk village are studied and analyzed to be significant. There have been several positive impacts brought by tourism in terms of growth in employment opportunities, increase in foreign remittances, self-sustainable investments, etc. Due to the keen interest of the visiting tourists in the local Gurung culture in the village, people have been more than delightful to preserve their culture and tradition and language not only to thrive their distinctiveness but also as a major attraction to the tourists and source of income. Besides, people have been more connected to the outer world, through the exchange of their culture, the lifestyles, with the tourist flowing in from different parts of the world. The living standard has been enhanced to some extent.

However, studying the impacts of tourism in the village of Ghandruk, a need is felt to look beyond the pre-conceived notion of glorification of tourism. As it is a natural phenomenon that everything has its pros and cons, the tourism also brings along with it some of the drastic impacts in a society of a particular area. In case of Ghandruk, tourism has been majorly benefitting only one group of people that is the hotel owners. For the locals, most of them are either completely untouched with its benefits or have made slight positive impacts. Rather, due to the development of tourism industry, there is increasing demand for basic services and goods from tourists will often cause price hikes that negatively affect local residents whose income does not increase proportionately. Such economic disparity is bound to lead to social inequality especially seen among the hoteliers and non-hoteliers.

Recommendation for the village of Ghandruk:

  • Creation of 2 markets, one for the tourists and another for the local villagers in order to eliminate the economic inequality brought in by tourism and for equal utilization of resources.
  • The locals can further utilize and best mobilize their strong asset i.e. their culture for both cultural thriving and source of income. For e.g. organizing local cultural dance programs for the tourists which will help them sustain their culture but at the same time, also can be a revenue source.

Recommendation for the college: 

  • There was a unanimous agreement among the students that the number of days for research of this kind was not enough. So it would be more effective if there were at least 1 day and at most 2 days extension of the stay in the research area.
  • It would also be more effective if the teachers could have managed a meeting with some representatives of the students prior to the tour to discuss on table the needs, interests and expectations of the students from this tour.
  • It would have been better if the topic of research was communicated and preset questionnaires for the research were given to the students before the tour so that students could have managed to prepare for the research.





(In this chapter, the subject has been introduced, the problems are stated and the objective of the study is presented. The organization of the study is also included.)         12059985_10153151083305794_1242763028_o


Nepal, one of the land locked countries is located in South Asia with an area of 1, 47,181 sq. kilometers and population of approximately 27 million. This country, Nepal, locked by Himalayas and bordered to the north by China and to the south, east and west by India. Furthermore, Nepal is divided into three ecological regions- mountains, hills and the Terai and five administrative regions- the eastern, central, western, mid-western and far- western regions.
Nepal is developing country with agriculture being principal economic activity, employing 70% of the population and providing 37% of GDP. Nepal’s annual economic growth rate has been average to 5 percent. Nepal has been gradually progressing in exploiting natural resources, tourism and hydroelectricity. Moreover, GDP of Nepal is heavily dependent on remittance.
Tourism has also been one of the major source of income of Nepalese people. It is the largest industry in Nepal and the largest source of foreign exchange and revenue. Nepal is blessed with 8 of the 10 highest mountains in the world, including Mt.Everest, the highest mountains with the height 8848 m., Nepal is hotspot destination for many mountaineers. Beside this tourists visit Nepal for other religious and sightseeing purposes. In addition to this, Nepal has many other spots for tourism.
According to statistics of 2012, there is slow growth rate of 9.8%. The number of tourists had increases by 21.4% in 2011 which was Nepal Tourism Year (NTY). With the importance of tourism in Nepal, Nepal government has been formulating many policies in support of tourism sector, one of them is Tourism Sector Master Plan (TSMP). The goal of this tourism policy is to increase annual international tourists to 2 million by 2020 and also to expand economic opportunites and increase employment in tourism sector to 1 million by 2020.
The contribution of tourism to national GDP of Nepal accounts 2% in 2013 (NRB, 2014). The CBS National Account Indicators also states that the contribution of tourism to the national GDP is 1.97% (CBS, 2014). Similarly, Nepal’s travel and tourism sector directly supported 504,000 jobs in 2013. The figure represents 3.2 percent of the total employment in the country, and this share is expected to rise by 6.4 percent in 2014 (WTCC, 2013)

Tourism has been lately providing employment opportunities to many Nepalese with improvement in their livelihoods and standard of living. For a country like Nepal, which lacks abundant resources, the tourism sector is expected to continue to play an important role in the country’s development, but not without negative consequences.

Statement of the Problem12062676_10153151086500794_506987768_o

Tourism is one of the important source of income of Nepalese people. Tourists visiting from different parts of the world have different importance in Nepal’s economy and development of local people.
Tourists from different parts of the world with different cultures and values have significant impact on local Nepalese people. There have been many positive as well as negative impacts brought by the tourists to the host country. We are already known about the positive consequences brought by tourism industry and this study is concerned about the negative as well as positive consequences of tourism.
Hence, this study is conducted in Ghandruk of Kaski District in Gandaki Zone in order to find out every possible socio-cultural and economic impact of tourism on people of Ghandruk and VDC as a whole.

Objectives of the study

The main objectives of this study is to analyze whether locals have been enjoying positive impact of tourism or there is hidden negative impacts that is directly or indirectly affecting the life of the local people and VDC as a whole. The specific objectives are as follows.

  • To understand the financial contribution made by tourism in Ghandruk.
  • To analyze the change in socio-cultural and economic sphere of people’s lives.
  • To understand the negative effects of tourism in the life of local people.
  • To explore the possible changes brought by tourism in the relationship of the local people.

1.4 Rationale of the study12055141_10153151083085794_874312784_o

Nepal, one of the undeveloped countries, has a great potential for tourism. Tourism has been proved to be one of the best options for earning foreign currency and has been providing employment opportunities to many of the Nepalese which has helped to upgrade the present status of the people and country as a whole.
Tourists have great influence on the people, tourism has been empowering many people but along with that many adverse affect has been noticed in the society. The study of those adverse affect is done in limited extent. Therefore, it is very important to make complete study about the impacts of tourism on local people in order to make this tourism sector more effective.
Hence, the focal point of this study is to observe and analyze the impacts of tourists making on social, cultural and economic aspect of people’s lives. Although tourism has been one of the effective way of alleviating poverty and benefitting locals at grass-root levels, there seems to occur many changes in the relationship of the locals due to tourism and hence making poor more poorer and rich more richer.

1.5 Organization of the study

The study has been divided into six chapters. Out of which the first chapter deals with the overall introduction of the study topic, this brings forward for the readers an understanding of the study and its objectives. The second chapter deals with literature review. The chapter three deals with the Methods followed for data collection along with its limitations. The fourth chapter deals with the description of study area and the fifth chapters decribes the socio-cultural and economic changes brought by tourism in Ghandruk VDC. The last chapter deals with the summary, conclusion and recommendation.

                               12082251_10153151070700794_546053081_o  REVIEW OF LITERATURE

(In this chapter, the related literatures have been reviewed. The reviewed literatures are books, journals, websites, case study, etc.)

The literature reviewed deals with the economic changes brought by the tourism and the statistical reports of NRB relating to tourism industry. Tourism policies have also been consulted formulated by NTB in order to enhance the tourism industry in Nepal.
Case study regarding the impact of tourism has been reviewed which has given more importance to the positive impacts of tourism and tourists. Also the contribution made by the process of globalization on tourism. Nepal has enjoyed many benefits due to globalization as more people will have link, access and information about the tourism sites of Nepal.


(In this chapter research methods employed to collect qualitative and quantitative data for the present study has been described. The present study has adopted the general sociological research methods. The chapter discussed the research design, techniques of data collection, analysis and interpretation of data.)

3.1 Research Design

This study is based on descriptive and explorative research design. It is descriptive because it describes general socio-economic status and the changes occurred in the life of respondent after the exposure of tourism industry. This study also describes the relationship between tourism and economy of the people. In addition to that, it also studies the relationship between tourism and socio-cultural aspect of the people.
Explorative research design was followed to understand the actual impact of tourism on locals. The locals were interviewed personally to understand the possible effect of tourism industry in Ghandruk.

Ghandruk houses
Ghandruk houses

3.2 Rationale of the Selection of the Study Area

This study has been carried out in Ghandruk, located north-west of Pokhara. The major reason for the selection of this area is because it is the entry point of Annapurna and Machhapuchre mountains. Since, tourism is one of the main occupation of the locals with high numbers of tourists visiting this place, therefore Ghandruk would do justice to the area of inquiry i.e. “The socio-cultural and economic impact of tourism in Ghandruk”.

3.3 Nature and Sources of Data

In this study primary and secondary data has been used. The primary data has been collected through the field survey with structured interview, observation and key informants interview. In order to meet the requirement the various books, publications, reports and case study have been used.

3.4 Unit of study, universe and sampling procedure

This study seeks to explain the impact of tourism in the life of local people. Therefore, any local people affected by the tourism industry are taken as the unit of study. The universe of the study is whole locals residing in Ghandruk. Since, the universe is indefinite non-probability sampling procedure is followed i.e. purposive non-probability sampling procedure.

3.5 Techniques of Data Collection

In this study to collect the primary data interview schedule and interview with key informant have been used.

3.5.1 Interview Schedule

For field survey, structured questionnaire was prepared and five of the locals were interviewed accordingly. The questionnaire was prepared to know the socio-cultural and economic status of local people of Ghandruk.
In order to know about the impact of tourism on locals unstructured interview was carried out along with the non-controlled observation. The interview was more focused about the effects made by tourism industry.

3.7 Limitation of the Studydhampus-trek5

Tourism is widely spread all over the country and the study are itself is small in area and couldn’t cover every aspect of the study. However some of the limitations of the study are as follows:

  • The study area is itself a small area thus the finding cannot be generalized to all the area.
  • The respondents were almost illiterate and couldn’t provide the required information.
  • The respondents were old and had difficulty providing information.
  • There was limitation of time and resources for the study.

                                             THE STUDY AREA

(This chapter describes about the setting of the District and VDC. It covers the general information regarding the physical, social , cultural and economic setting of the study area.)

4.1 District Overview

Kaski District is a part of Gandaki Zone, one of the 75 districts of Nepal. Pokhara is the headquarter of Kaski District with the coverage area of 2,017 and with the population of 380,527 (CBS, 2001).
Kaski has a great potential for the tourism industry with Annapurna mountain range, Seti Gandaki, Modi, Madi along with other rivulets. The district’s headquarter Pokhara itself is a tourist centered place with variety of attractions like Phewa Lake (second biggest lake of Nepal) , Begnas Lake (third biggest lake of Nepal), David Falls, Gupteshwor Cave, Mahendra Cave, Bindhabasini Temple, Sarangkot, Machhapuchhre, Panchase Chhetra, etc.
The district is famous for himalayan range with about 11 Himalayas with height greater than 7000 m. The famous Peaks include Machhapuchhre and the Annapurna range in the northern side is always full of snow. The beautiful scenery of northern mountains, gorge, and rivers are important natural resources of this district with great tourism values.
The district is full of people with multi-language, multi-religion and multiple cultures. Different people have different foods, dresses and norms based on their caste and religion. Many places offer Home Stay for internal as well as international tourists along with performance of local dance according to caste and cultures. According to the census of 2068 Kaski district has people of about 84 castes, 44 languages and 11 religions. The district is the common place of different castes such as Gurung, Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar, Thakali, Kumal and many more.


Climate Zone[1]Elevation Range% of Area
Upper Tropical300 to 1,000 meters
1,000 to 3,300 ft.
Subtropical1,000 to 2,000 meters
3,300 to 6,600 ft.
2,000 to 3,000 meters
6,400 to 9,800 ft.
Subalpine3,000 to 4,000 meters
9,800 to 13,100 ft.
Alpine4,000 to 5,000 meters
13,100 to 16,400 ft.
Nivalabove 5,000 meters7.4%
Trans-Himalayan3,000 to 6,400 meters
9,800 to 21,000 ft.

4.2 VDC OVERVIEWghandrul01

Ghandruk is a Village Development Committee located in Kaski District. It is located in Northern far of Kaski district. It is located in north –west of Pokhara and it is the entry point to both Annapurna and Machhapuchre mountains. Many of the tourist has to pass this village in order to get to Annapurna Base Camp (ABC). This village is not only popular for trekking bur also for the cultural orientation of Gurung culture. At present the most popular route for trekkers is the one day journey from Pokhara to Ghandruk.

4.2.1 Geographic Setting of the VDC:

This study has been carried out in Ghandruk VDC of Kaski District. Ghandruk lies to the north of Pokhara. This VDC rises from the height of 1,000 to 8,091 m above sea level, where Ghandruk village is situated at an altitude of 1,950m.

The Modi Khola River borders Ghandruk VDC to the east, Deurali, Rani Danda Shikh and Dangsing to the west, Annapurna Himalayan range to the north and Modi confluence and Sandhi Khola to the south. Ghandruk has an area of 2,141,297.7 million hectares, or 109,810 ropanis, 13 annas and 1 paisa.

The following table shows the land use and topography of Ghandruk:

TopographyArea (ropanis)Percent
Forest cover25,03822.50
Area under snow cover20,00018.50
Agricultural Land30,00027.50
Total area under agriculture24,372-13-1-022.0
Irrigated land1,000.80
Barren, uncultivated and grazing land3,0002.60
Rocks, cliffs and naked areas6,0005.60
Residential area4,0000.30
Total Land Area109810-13-1-0100


4.2.2 Climate of the VDC

Ghandruk’s climate is classified as warm and temperate. In winter, there is much less rainfall than in summer. The average annual temperature in Ghandruk is 14.2 °C. In a year, the average rainfall is 2747 mm.

4.4.3 Population of the VDC

The total population of Ghandruk VDC is 4,265. The total number of male population is 2,054 and female population is 2,211. The total household in Ghandruk VDC is 1,102. The household size is 3.87 and the sex ratio of the VDC is 92.80.


4.4.4 Caste and Ethinicity of the VDC

Ghandruk VDC is inhabitated predominantely by Gurungs. More than 50% of the population is convered by Gurungs.

All Caste426520542211
Chhetree 313143170
Brahman – Hill229120109
Magar 401192209
Kami 685302383
Damai/Dholi 269114155
Sarki 362175187
Gharti/Bhujel 362115
Ghale 18126
Others 392217


Ghandurk being on the way to Annapurna mountain or ABC, it has been blessed with increasing numbers of tourists. Every year the number of tourists has been increasing as the tourists prefer trekking up to Annapurna Base Camp. The scenic beauty of Ghandruk has been alluring not only international tourists but also internal tourists. This place has been holiday destination for many Nepalese as well.
Ghandruk is heavily inhabitated by Gurungs. Since this place is mostly populated by Gurungs tourist find this place popular for the Gurung culture as well. Gurungs have their own language and cultural dress. Traditional dress of the Gurungs includes a short blouse tied across the front and a short skirt of several yards of white cotton material wrapped around the waist and held as if a wide belt. The Gurung women wear a cotton or velveteen blouse tied at the front, and a sari of printed material usually a dark reddish color. Their ornaments include gold and coral necklaces, gold earrings and nose rings and bangles.
The Gurung have a rich tradition of music and culture. The Gurung have established the system of Rodhi where young people meet and share their views in music and dancing. They have their own music and dancing history. Some musical dances such as Ghatu and Chudka.
Likewise, other ethnic groups also have their own culture and language. Ghandruk is popular for its distinct cultures of different ethnic groups. Many of the people practice Buddhism and many others Hinduism and rest practices others.
With the passing time and expansion of tourism industy people are unified into common language i.e. Nepali. There has been many changes with the expansion of tourism. The people have been noticeably been conscious about sanitation and health. Despite of their own ethnic language children are trained into Nepali language. The increase in number of tourist has made people aware about the international language i.e. English.
The locals have good knowledge of English language, which has been indeed very helpful for them to get connected to the rest of the world. The number of household with toilet has been increasing. The proper use of toilet has been ensuring good health condition of children and people as a whole.
With the onset of tourism industry in Ghandruk, number of development have been taking place. The Ghandruk has been facilitated by electricity , LP gas, clean drinking water, etc. most of the people in Ghandruk are highly privileged by expanding tourism industry as it is providing more and more job opportunities to the local people. In the past many of the people had to migrate other countries for employment. Many people were recruited in British and Indian Army but now most of them are engaged in tourism business along with the other family members.
The increase in employment has assure high standard of living of locals. Many of the household had adequate facility along with the consumption of modern amenities.


It has been estimated that more than 50% of the population are engaged in tourism industry and others in agriculture. Most of the Gurungs had been employed as British or Indian Army but lately the figure has changed and most of them are engaged in tourism sector. Many of the people have been operating hotels, lodges and also giving facility of home stay to the tourist , both international and internal.
The people predominately employed in army and agriculture has been gradually shifting toward tourism sector. There are many hotels operated in Ghandruk. 24 hotels are in operation, 20 hotels with modern amenities and 4 with ordinary facilities.
Due to the difference in the economic status of the people there is economic disparity. There is unequal distribution of income. The hoteliers are getting richer and others are getting poorer. The people with inadequate money to operate hotels are compelled to live their birthplace and move to other countries for earning money.
People engaged in agriculture seemed to have problem for survival in Ghandruk. The agriculture is only for subsistence and it is not commercialized. People are also engaged in cattle farming especially pony. Ponies are used as a means of transport for goods. Tourism has significantly helped these farmers in some extent.
Some are employed as porters for trekkers. Hence, tourism has created many employment opportunities to the locals of Ghandruk and at the same time have caused many disparities among the people socially economically.


This is the final chapter. In this chapter the entire findings are summarized and concluded with constructive and applicable suggestions or recommendations.


Nepal is one of the emerging economies in the world. It has great potentiality in the tourism sector. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture and some part of the population is engaged in tourism sector. The scenic beauty of Nepal has been alluring many international tourists. After the identification of importance of tourism in Nepal, TSMP have long term goal to increase international tourists to 2 million by 2020 AD.
Among the many potential areas for tourism, Ghandruk is one of them. Ghandruk is located north to Pokhara. It lies in the Kaski District of Gandaki Zone. Annually there has been considerable increase in number of tourists in Ghandruk. Ghandruk is being popular for tourism because of its scenic beauty, natural resources and view of majestic tmountains. It is also the route for ABC. Therefore, many of the tourists visit this place as a part of their route to ABC.
Therefore, study has been carried out in Ghandruk VDC. The main objectives of this study is to analyze impact on socio-cultural and economic sphere of locals due to tourism and also to understand the emerging changes notices in the relationship of people living in Ghandruk VDC.
This study is based on descriptive and exploratory research design. In this study primary and secondary as well as quantitative and qualitative data have been used. The primary data have been collected from field survey through structured questionnaire and structured interview. Since the number of household was 1102, non-probability sampling procedure has been used following purposive non-probability sampling method. The total numbers of respondants were 10 and out of which 6 were females and 4 were males.
Here, this study is focused to find out actual and possible impacts of tourism in socio-cultural and economic aspects of people living in Ghandruk. This studies shows number of changes brought by tourism in the life of local people. There have been many positive changes as well as negatives changes due to tourism.


The conclusion drawn from the above findings are that tourism industry has undoubtedly helped Nepalese economy to grow and flourish. With the increase in the tourism many of the people are able to get employment in the home country. Tourism has provided employment opportunities to every level of people from the low level to high level. The people migrating abroad for job have been decreasing gradually with the realization of tourism potentiality.
Tourism has also upgraded the living standard of the living also make people aware about the importance of sanitation. They have considerably brought many changes but the negative impacts can’t be ignored. The traditional cultures and languages are in the verse of extinction. Young people imitating culture and lifestyle of tourist ignoring their own has brought the problem of cultural homogeneity. The originality seems to be disappearing.
Also, the economic disparity between the people of Ghandruk is increasing, which is causing social problem in the area. Therefore, it can be concluded that tourism has been positive and negative impact.


Due to the poor economic status of people many have not been able to get benefit of increasing tourism in Ghandruk VDC.

Government should provide financial assistance to the people who lack resources in order to upgrade their living standard

Proper price mechanism of agricultural products is needed.
Agriculture should also be commercialized by expanding markets, so that low level people can generate income, which will directly help to fill the gap between the people.

The importance of the tradition, culture should be taught to younger generation.

The art, literature, music of diverse ethnic should be preserved and given equal priority.